Google+ Customizing SAP Finance and Controlling - SAP ABAP

Customizing SAP Finance and Controlling

Customizing SAP Finance and Controlling has some major parts like creating and modifying company profiles and corresponding currencies data.To create a company code copy an existing company code utilizing the group copy perform, which copies:

  1. the definition
  2. international parameters
  3. customizing tables (approx. 315 tables)
  4. common ledger accounts (if desired)
  5. account dedication
After utilizing this operate, solely the desired modifications between the original and the model new company code need to be maintained.To create an organization code copy an existing firm code using the group copy perform, which copies:

Company code components

The editing of the corporate code information includes:
  1. The deal with knowledge is required for correspondence and is recorded on evaluation reports.
  2. For every firm code a currency have to be specified. Accounts are managed in the company code currency. All other currencies are indicated as foreign. The system converts the quantities posted in a foreign foreign money into this currency. The foreign money defined within the firm code is often called the native forex within R/3.
  3. The nation key specifies which country is to be regarded as the house country. The system interprets all other nations as foreign. That is important with enterprise or fee transactions, since completely different varieties are needed for overseas fee transactions, and the system helps totally different formats for addresses for international correspondence.
  4. A language key should be entered so that the system can create texts automatically in the right language; for instance, when issuing checks.

When defining a business space, solely a four digit alpha-numeric key and a short description are needed.Within the R/3-normal system firm code 0001 is a template for a basic company code with chart of accounts INT and no particular nation-specifications.For those who need an organization code in a country for which a country template exists, you must use the country model program which copies the nation-particular customizing tables from the particular nation template into firm code 0001. Upon completion, firm code 0001 will most likely be personalized for the chosen country. It's greatest to then copy this company code into your new desired firm code. It's doable you'll then start the nation model program once more to create a template for another country and so on.The nation version program not only creates a rustic-specific company code template however also a country-particular template for controlling areas, vegetation, buying organizations, sales organizations, credit control areas, monetary administration areas,etc.

Do not forget to repeat the template before you proceed further. Don't use firm code 0001 as your productive firm code as a consequence of the country version program always makes use of this company code because the target firm code. Furthermore, you should run the country version program only in a new installation of R/3 and never in an upgrade set up as a result of the structure of the nation-specific customizing may have changed from one R/3 launch to another.

The Fiscal Year

To separate business transactions into different periods, a fiscal year with posting intervals needs to be defined. The fiscal year is defined as a variant which is assigned to the company code.The fiscal year variant accommodates the definition of posting durations and special durations . Particular intervals are used for postings which aren't assigned to time intervals, however to the method of 12 months-finish closing. In complete,sixteen periods might be used. The system derives the posting period from the posting date. When the posting date falls within the final regular posting interval, the transaction could additionally be posted into one of the special periods.

Instance: Above you see a fiscal 12 months with 12 posting intervals and 4 particular periods. If the posting date falls within the twelfth interval, the transaction can as a substitute be posted in one of the 4 special periods.Commonplace fiscal 12 months variants are already defined within the system and can be utilized as templates.The fiscal yr variant does not include the data as as to whether a interval is open or closed; this is maintained in another table. The fiscal year variant solely defines the amount of durations and their begin and end dates.

If each fiscal 12 months of a fiscal 12 months variant uses the same variety of periods, and the posting durations at all times begin and finish at the identical day of the 12 months, the variant is called yr-independent. A year independent fiscal 12 months variant can be defined as
  1. the calendar year
  2. a non-calendar year
If the fiscal year is defined because the calendar 12 months, the posting periods are equal to the months of the year. Therefore a calendar yr variant should have 12 posting periods.If the fiscal 12 months is defined as a non-calendar year, the posting durations must be defined by assigning ending dates to every period. A non-calendar 12 months can have between 1 and 16 posting periods. If the non-calendar 12 months doesn't start at January 1st the periods of the year which belong to the former or the approaching fiscal 12 months should get an annual displacement indicator (-1, +1).

The example above on the precise reveals a non-calendar 12 months with 6 posting periods which goes from April to March. The months January to March subsequently nonetheless belong to the old fiscal 12 months and need to have the annual displacement indicator ”-1”.If the fiscal year differs from the calendar year, however the posting durations correspond to calendar months, the day limit for February should be 29 to be prepared for leap years.Fiscal years are usually yr-independent.

A fiscal yr variant needs to be defined as ”yr-dependent” if the beginning and the top date of the
posting durations of some fiscal years will doubtless be completely different from the dates of different fiscal years, and/or if some fiscal years shall use a distinct number of posting periods.If all the years of a 12 months-dependent fiscal yr variant have the same variety of periods, only the different interval dates for the different years have to be outlined (see instance to the left). If one 12 months of a fiscal year variant has much less posting intervals than the others, it is known as a ”shortened fiscal yr” . This might be required if closing has to be made earlier than the finish of the traditional fiscal yr; (e. g. if the beginning of the fiscal yr needs to be changed or if the company was bought). The shortened fiscal 12 months and its number of posting intervals has to be specified before definition of the period dates. For this year only a lesser number of posting durations might be assigned.

Currencies

Every forex which can be used needs to be identified by a currency code . A lot of the world's currencies are already outlined in the SAP R/3-System. Every currency code can have a validity date.For each combination of two currencies, completely different trade charges could be maintained that are distinguished by an alternate price type. These totally different change charges can be used for numerous functions such as: valuation, translation, conversion, planning, etc.

A base forex could be assigned to an exchange fee type. It's then only vital to take care of exchange rates for all different currencies into this base currency. An change rate between two international currencies is calculated by combining the two charges between each currency and the bottom currency. n Word: A base forex can solely be used for an average charge (e.g. M), not for a selling or buying rate.Till 4.0A it was solely potential to use one base foreign money per change charge type. Authorized necessities could make it essential to use different base currencies for the exchange charges with totally different currencies.

Instance: The bottom currency of the group is USD. One firm code of the group lies in Mexico.In Mexico it is a authorized requirement that all firm codes have to use the local foreign money MXN as the bottom currency.

Answer: To all currency pairs with MXN of the conventional trade fee kind a derived change fee kind gets assigned which has the base currency MXN. Normally the base currency USD is used; nevertheless, for all exchange rates with the forex MXN, the base foreign money MXN is used.

EURO

At the beginning of the foreign money union, the bottom foreign money has to be switched to EURO. This can be performed by defining a brand new trade price sort with the base forex EURO valid from the day of the starting of the European Financial Union (EMU). This new change price sort then must be entered because the derived alternate price kind of the former exchange fee type.Special translation rules for the EMU must be followed, e.g. rounding rules. For each trade price sort you may select whether or not these rules must be followed or not.The change charges of an change charge sort will be “fastened,” i.e. the system checks whether or not the manually entered change charge varies from the fixed exchange rate.

All R/3 applications and functions course of trade rates using the direct citation in addition to the indirect quotation. Whether the alternate rate is defined or communicated utilizing the direct or indirect technique of citation relies upon available on the market normal or the individual business transaction. The use of oblique quotation is neither software nor nation-particular - it affects all of the components in which trade rates are used.The direct quotation is often known as the worth notation: The currency worth is expressed within the native currency per unit of international currency. The indirect quotation is also identified as the volume notation: The currency value is expressed in units of the international currency per unit of the native currency.

Design of Exchange

Change rates will be entered as a direct or indirect quotation. You presumably can keep two prefixes that can be utilized to differentiate between direct and indirect quotations alternate charges throughout enter and display. In case you don´t set up a prefix, the usual setting is legitimate:
  1. “” (blank, and not utilizing a prefix) for direct quotation trade rates
  2. “/” for oblique quotation change charges
  1. Situation 1: If you happen to use primarily direct quotation trade rates and indirect citation occurs seldom,use the default configuration. In this means you'll find a way to enter direct citation alternate rates with no prefix.
  2. Situation 2: If, in addition to direct citation change rates, the handling of indirect citation is required, you must define a prefix that's not “clean” for each citation sorts, e.g.: . “*” for direct citation change rates, “/” for indirect quotation alternate charges . For these who observe this suggestion, the configuration does not permit alternate charges to be entered with no prefix, an error message occurs. Thus users are compelled to consider which the proper citation is and enter the speed with a valid prefix.
  3. Scenario 3: If oblique quotation is the major notation at your company, you'll have the ability to configure the settings this fashion:. “*” for direct citation alternate charges, “ ” (blank) for oblique citation change rates . This configuration permits indirect citation alternate rates to be entered with no prefix whereas the less used direct quotation alternate charges must be entered with a prefix.

MAINTAINING THE EXCHANGE RATE

Sustaining alternate rates is an on-going task.To reduce upkeep, R/3 affords several tools. For every alternate charge type one of many following instruments can be used:
  1. Inversion (of the tools obtainable, inversion is the oldest and is seldom used at present)
  2. Base Currency
  3. Alternate Price Spreads
Simply one among these three instruments can be used per exchange charge; however, for different alternate price sorts totally different instruments can be used.Moreover: this system RFTBFF00 maintains the alternate fee desk mechanically by uploading an input file in multi cash-format.

CHART OF ACCOUNTS

The chart of accounts is a variant which contains the construction and the basic information about common ledger accounts.You define the chart of accounts with a four character identifier. You define the elements of the chart of account, e.g. language, size of the G/L account quantity,group chart of accounts, status.The chart of accounts must be assigned to every company code which would like to create accounts based mostly on the outlined structure.

The upkeep language is the language through which account descriptions are maintained.A group account quantity may be entered into a G/L-account. This group account number is used for reporting throughout company codes which use completely different charts of accounts. If a bunch chart of accounts is entered into the chart of accounts, the system makes this field a required entry within the G/L master account and verifies that the group account quantity entered exists in the group chart of accounts.A chart of accounts which is not but accomplished could be blocked in order that no firm code can use it till ready.

The size of the G/L account quantity might be from 1 to 10 digits.Every single firm code needs to have a chart of accounts assigned to it. A quantity of company codes can share the identical chart of accounts (variant principle).The R/3-CO module makes use of the identical chart of accounts because the FI module. If firm codes intend to use cross firm code controlling, they want to use the identical chart of accounts. In the example above,company codes a thousand and 2000 can do cross firm code controlling,however firm codes 2000 and 3000 cannot.

Earlier than you ought to utilize an account in a company code, you need to preserve the account definition at the chart of accounts level. You then create firm code-particular settings, that are solely valid in the corporate code. An example of an organization code-specific setting is defining the account currency. Many of the accounts in firm code 1000 use the UNI currency, whereas company code 3000 uses USD for most of its accounts.

GROUP CHART OF ACCOUNTS

The two companies in North America were originally impartial corporations however had been bought by the IDES group. Both corporations have been already reside with R/3 and had been using the chart of accounts CAUS as the working chart of accounts .Management decided that value accounting for Europe and the USA collectively isn't necessary. For this motive, administration decided to retain the working chart of accounts CAUS for the 2 U.S. company codes and to assign them to a separate controlling area. For consolidation purposes, a group chart of accounts was set up for the 2 operating charts of accounts.

For inner purposes, reporting over a number of company codes may be fascinating, e.g a steadiness sheet shall be generated which contains the financial positions of a quantity of company codes.That is no problem so long as all company codes use the identical chart of accounts. Nevertheless, some company codes might have to use special charts of accounts because of authorized requirements. If this is the case for internal reporting, then:
  1. a group chart of accounts will be used. This chart has to include all of the group accounts.
  2. the group chart of accounts has to be assigned to each operational chart of accounts. If that is done,the sphere ”group account quantity” within the chart of account segments of the operational charts of accounts becomes a required entry field.
  3. within the chart of account-phase of each operational account, the group account quantity needs to be entered. Different accounts of 1 operational chart of accounts can point to the same group account.
  4. a monetary assertion version, for the group chart of account, needs to be used.
As a result of the corporate codes use different operational charts of accounts, no inter company code controlling may be performed.An different to utilizing a bunch chart of accounts is to use a country charts of accounts. Whereas each company code uses the same operational chart of accounts, the company codes which require a totally different chart of accounts for external reporting can:
  1. have a country chart of accounts assigned
  2. have the nation chart of account quantity (different quantity) entered in every firm code segment. Every nation account number can solely be used once.
Since all firm codes submit into the same operational chart of accounts, cross-company code controlling is possible.Disadvantage: Accounting clerks who may be conversant in the nation charts of accounts might have to get used to using the operational chart of accounts.

ACCOUNTS AND COST ELEMENTS

The combination of the R/3 System requires you to create expense accounts in Financial Accounting (FI) with corresponding primary value components in Controlling. This ensures that bills in FI and primary prices in CO will be reconciled. You will need to create the primary value elements in FI as G/L accounts earlier than you possibly can create them in CO. Postings with main price elements are made to cost-carrying controlling objects, equivalent to value centers or inner orders. Examples of major price parts are materials costs, wage & wage costs, and utilities costs.Secondary price elements are used completely in CO to identify inside price flows, comparable to assessments or settlements. They don't have corresponding general ledger accounts in FI and are outlined only in CO.If you analyze revenues in Controlling, the R/3 System records them as revenue components, which are simply a unique class of primary price element. Revenue postings are usually made to Profitability Evaluation and Profit Middle Accounting. Revenues in Cost Center Accounting may be handled as statistical only, which means they cannot be allocated elsewhere in CO. Whenever you create a cost element master report, you need to assign a cost factor category. The class determines the transactions for which you need to use the associated fee element. For instance, category 01 (common primary value aspect) is used for the usual primary postings to CO from Monetary Accounting, Materials Management, or other R/3 modules.

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