SAP BW InfoObject Key Figure

Business evaluation-objects (customer, sales revenue, and so on) are called InfoObjects in BW. They  are subdivided into characteristics, key figures, units, and time characteristics.InfoObjects have three significant functions: 

ŸThey are components of an InfoSource. InfoObjects function like the fields in a structure, but they also have additional meta-information.They are similar in design to an InfoCube in that they display characteristics and key figures.They complete an InfoSource by adding master data, text, and hierarchies.You can use InfoObjects in as many different InfoSources and InfoCubes as you need. SAP InfoObjects start with 0. InfoObjects that customers define themselves start with a letter from A to Z.

You select the characteristics for a new InfoObject from a series of tabstrips.These settings have a big influence on the capabilities of the InfoObject and how it is used in BW.These settings also form the metadata for the InfoObjects. They are stored in the metadata repository.

Defining exception aggregation:
Key figure maintenance -> Aggregation -> Exception aggregation .For the key figure “Monthly Headcount”, the last headcount number in the period would need to be chosen instead of adding together all the daily headcounts. So the exception aggregation type would be LAST and the exception aggregation characteristic would be the appropriate time characeristic.

BW InfoCube Components

The fact table and the dimension tables of an InfoCube that belong to the fact table are connected to one another relationally using the dimension keys. Dimension keys are provided by the system, one dimension key for each combination of characteristics in the dimension table.When you execute a query, the OLAP processor searches in the dimension tables of the InfoCube that you want to evaluate for the combinations of characteristics that have been requested in the selection.The dimension keys that are generated in this way point to the information in the fact table.

Multidimensional Analysis

In the BEx Analyzer, the user creates a query by selecting several characteristics from the list of all the characteristics that are available in the InfoCube. In this case, the user has chosen the characteristics customer group, division and region.When the query is executed, the OLAP processor evaluates the query definition and retrieves a subset of the InfoCube data known as the query cache. This process runs in the main memory for performance reasons. The only data in the query cache is the data that corresponds with the query definition.Depending on the values that are requested for each characteristic, the OLAP processor selects the appropriate rows of data from the query cache and passes this data on to the tool whose task it is to display the data.

As soon as the appropriate rows of data for the selected characteristic values have been passed on to the tool that displays the data, the key figures for these rows are also made available.If you change the filter values of the characteristics, the system selects a new set of rows of data. If this happens, the values of the key figures change accordingly.

From Data Model to Database

Depending on the context, the terms InfoCube, dimensional analysis, star schema, and data mart, refer essentially to the same thing, namely how data is structured within BW tables.The term star schema refers to the general concept of the table structure or the table structure from a data modeling perspective. InfoCube usually refers to the actual tables containing data. In BW,queries are related to an InfoCube or an ODS object.

Creating a New InfoCube

When you create a new InfoCube, the data model must deliver all the required information.In the data targets tab in the data modeling area of the Administrator Workbench, you select the InfoArea to which you want to assign the InfoCube. With the right mouse-button you click on this InfoArea and choose the Create InfoCube function.

You give the InfoCube a name from the customer name range (beginning with any letter from A to Z).You select the appropriate characteristic InfoObjects based on your data model.You create the dimensions that you need in addition to the standard dimensions of time, unit, and InfoPackage.You assign the chosen characteristics to the appropriate user-defined dimensions. The unit and InfoPackage dimensions are populated by the system. The time dimension is populated in the next step.On the time characteristics tab, you choose the time characteristics that you want to use. These are assigned to the time dimension.You choose the key figures specified in the data model. You check that your InfoCube design is complete. If it is, you activate the InfoCube.

Star Schema

Multilingual descriptions for attributes in the dimension tables are not supported.Secondary indexes for the data are stored as alphanumeric fields in comprehensive tables. This makes it more difficult to access the data.If attributes of the dimensions change over time, there is no way of maintaining the old and new values for the attribute.Even if the majority of a company’s master data is used across the different business processes, each star schema must duplicate all of the data that is required for all of the possible user-reports that might be generated.All hierarchy relationships for the data must be modeled as attributes (characteristics) of a dimension table. It is not possible to generate user-defined hierarchy types.

Although many data warehouse solutions are based on designs similar to the standard star schema,there are many restrictions and problems associated with this basic design. This is why the SAP BW has an extended star schema.

A basic star schema has the following restrictions:

Only characteristics from the dimension tables can be used to access the facts.
No structured drilldowns can be generated.
Supporting a large number of languages is difficult.

In BW the extended star schema enables you to access:

Master data tables and their associated fields (attributes)
Text tables with extensive multilingual descriptions
External hierarchy tables for structured access to the data

Master Data Outside the Dimension

You can use master data attributes across various InfoCubes. Attributes are fields that describe a master data element. These attributes display additional information within a workbook to make the results more meaningful.For example, you can define navigation attributes. This means that, as far as navigation is concerned, the attributes behave like characteristics, even though they are not included in the dimension table. 

Attributes that you have defined as display attributes in a master data table can be displayed as additional information only in combination with the characteristic belonging to the attributes. You are not able to use a display attribute to navigate in a query. A single attribute table can be shared between several InfoCubes. The fact that data is shared increases its transparency for the user and guarantees that the data is consistent across different queries.

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SAP Business Warehouse Data Model

SAP Business Warehouse Data Model is needed in the business scenario as explained below.

Your company wants to integrate cost center data from an R/3 system and a legacy system.In the legacy system, the cost center number is 13 characters in length compared to 10 characters in R/3. To accommodate this inconsistency you need to create a new InfoObject called COSTC## to represent the 13-character cost center number. The 3-figure system ID is added to the cost center numbers in R/3.You also need to find out about the extended star schema of the BW data model.

Different Types of Data in BW

InfoObject is the generic term for all business objects such as customer, product, region, revenue, head count, and so on.Since InfoObjects are a fixed component of the BW metadata repository, they contain the technical definitions of the entities and also the logical connections of the entities. InfoObjects are used throughout the BW system. An InfoSource contains a group of InfoObjects. InfoObjects are subdivided into two groups:

Ÿ Key figures and
ŸCharacteristics (time and unit are special characteristics)
The InfoObject includes:
  1. General information (data dictionary, miscellaneous info, transfer routine)
  2. ŸUsage in the Business Explorer
  3. ŸMaster data/texts
  4. ŸHierarchies
  5. ŸAttributes
  6. ŸCompounding information

Types of Info Objects

In terms of the database, characteristic s correspond to key fields while key figures correspond to data
fields of a database table. A record in the InfoCube is identified uniquely by the combination of the characteristic values.Characteristics can have compounded key fields. For example, storage location is compounded with plant. This means that the characteristic values for storage location can be interpreted uniquely only in conjunction with those of plant.

Characteristics can refer to one another. For example, the characteristics sold-to party and ship-to party can refer to the customer characteristic. This means that all three InfoObjects have identical technical properties and share the same master data tables.The data types CHAR (character), NUMC (numeric character), DATS (date), and TIMS (time) are supported.The valid length for characteristic values is anything between 1 and 60 characters.

InfoObjects: Characteristic

Business evaluation-objects (customer, sales revenue, and so on) are called InfoObjects in BW. InfoObjects are subdivided into characteristics, key figures, units, and time characteristics. InfoObjects have three basic functions:

They are components of an InfoSource. InfoObjects function like the fields in a structure, but they also have additional meta-information.They are similar in design to an InfoCube in that they display characteristics and key figures.They complete an InfoSource by adding master data, text, and hierarchies.You can use InfoObjects in as many different InfoSources and InfoCubes as you need.  SAP InfoObjects start with 0. InfoObjects that customers define themselves start with a letter from A to Z.

Scenario for a New InfoObject

In this scenario we want to combine the overhead cost controlling data from two separate sources into one InfoCube.This is not a problem for the data stored in the R/3 OLTP system, because the InfoObject for cost center already has an R/3 standard length of 10 characters.For the non-R/3 system however, we need to create a new InfoObject to represent the cost center number that has a length of 13 characters.When you create a new InfoObject, you can also make other settings determining which master data, texts, hierarchy characteristics, and attributes you want to assign to the new InfoObject.

Creating a Characteristic

You select the characteristics for a new InfoObject from a series of tabstrips.These settings have a big influence on the capabilities of the InfoObject and how it is used in BW.These settings also form the metadata for the InfoObjects. They are stored in the metadata repository.

Navigation Attributes and Display Attributes

Master data attributes are used by the InfoCubes. Attributes are fields that describe master data in more detail. You can use this kind of attribute to display additional information in an Excel workbook to make the results of your reports clearer.You can define attributes as navigation attributes, meaning you determine that during navigation the attributes behave in the same way as dimension characteristics, even though they are not included in the dimension table of the InfoCube that you are analyzing.

Attributes that you define as display attributes in the master data table of a characteristic can be displayed as additional information only in combination with this characteristic. You are not able to use a display attribute to navigate in the dataset of an InfoCube.

You can set hierarchies as version-specific. This enables users to switch between different versions of a hierarchy when they are reporting.You can make hierarchies and hierarchy structures time-dependent. This means that you can determine the particular time intervals during which the nodes of a hierarchy are valid.

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SAP BW Multidimensional Data Models

A SAP BW data model that provides users with information corresponding to his or her business processes, meaning a data model that allows users to look at his or her performance indicators from the point of view of how these key figures influence the company.No predefined drill down paths. The user decides how he or she wants to analyze the data.The system must be able to handle large quantities of data at an acceptable speed.The structure must support functional reporting according to each individual business function and also across all the different business functions.

Become familiar with the structure of the information that you want to model.Refer to several sources of information to help you develop a comprehensive understanding of the business processes that your data model is based on n Evaluations of users' requirements (for example, results of interviews). Descriptions of existing source system applications as well as existing data warehouse applications and reporting applications
SAP BW Business Content
Existing entity relationship models (where available)
Develop an entity relationship model (ERM)

Business Content has been developed by experts from many specialized areas and you should use it as a primary source of information when you are determining your specific requirements. Enhancements that are made to Business Content usually deliver sound results - it is not a question of “reinventing the wheel”.Discussions must be based on the needs and preferences of users.

Example - questions relating to a data warehouse in the area of sales and marketing:

  1. ŸWho bought the product (customer and customer structure)?
  2. ŸWho sold the product (sales organization, distribution channels, and so on)?
  3. ŸWhat was sold exactly (product structure)?
  4. ŸWhen was it sold (time structure)?
  5. ŸHow was it sold (contract, contact, and so on)?
  6. ŸWhat characteristics belong to the sale (promotion, and so on)?

 Make sure that you are talking to the right person, before you start asking questions.

Develop an information model that focuses on users' analytical requirements
Use the ERM as a basis on which to develop a multidimensional model (MDM)
Create a useful relational database schema for your entities
Do not complicate the model unnecessarily
Convert the MDM to the necessary BW objects
Based on your data model, create the required data storage structures

The Entity Relationship Model (ERM)

An entity relationship model allows you to better understand the structure of the business processes in your source systems.

The following steps are involved in developing an ERM:

  1. Determine the entities that belong to a process - your basic business terms
  2. Determine the relationships between these entities
  3. Determine information about the attributes for each entity
  4. Determine the degree of normalization
The concepts behind (transaction-based) OLTP systems are based on ERMs. The goal of the OLTP system is to process and update transactions quickly (sales orders, purchase orders, changes to accounts in accounting, or employee status changes in HR, for example).Normalization, or the attempt to reduce or eliminate the redundant storage of duplicate information in more than one table, means that it is necessary to link together many tables.

The relationship between strong entities is usually N:M (many-to-many).
The N:M relationship between strong entities is usually described by key figures, for example, sales.
In a business scenario with a working document, this document forms an intersection entity.
Time is not an entity in the entity relationship model.

As a result of most business processes, basic entities are combined to form an intersection entity or an intersection transaction.Normalization means that information about regions and cities is not stored with the information in the sales transactional table. This would mean that the information about a customer’s region and city would have to be repeated each time the customer placed a new order for a product. Instead, the relevant region appears in the city table and the city appears on the customer tableWe do not know from this model what the analysis requirements for sale s reports will be. For example, we do not know whether we are going to need reports based on cities or based on the locations of the sales departments.

The Multidimensional Model (MDM)

In a multidimensional model (MDM) information consists of numerical facts (or key figures in BW terminology) and dimension attributes, meaning the business terms that describe these facts.The dimension attributes are collected into groups in the various dimensions. This means that dimension attributes that belong together (in a hierarchical relationship) appear in the same dimension.

The star schema is the most common way of displaying the relational databases in an MDM and is therefore often used as a synonym for the MDM itself. The facts are collected in a separate fact table and the dimensions are collected in the dimension tables. Both types of table are linked relationally. The dimension tables are joined to the fact table by foreign key relationships and primary key relationships. The dimension attribute with the highest granularity (level of detail) is a foreign key in the fact table. In this way each data record in the fact table (including the facts themselves) are identified uniquely by a combination of the values for these foreign keys in the dimension tables. 

In the analysis, the key values of the dimension attribute with the greatest level of detail are collected from each of the dimensions in the surrounding smaller dimension tables . These key values are subsequently used to access the relevant rows in the fact table. This reduces the amount of time it takes to read a large fact table.

From ERM to MDM

The result of this mapping process between the ERM and the MDM is a data model Ÿ that organizes the information according to the primary business characteristics (for example, material group, sales organization, time, and so on) - the dimensions.Ÿ that allows you to analyze the information using any combination of dimensions. that allows you to define the aggregation level and the information that is retrieved for a dimension, independently of the other dimensions. Structuring data warehouse information according to this schema guarantees a high level of efficiency in reporting and provides a flexible solution that can be adjusted easily to changing business demands.

1. The basic business processes and the identity of facts in the fact table (a fact table - an InfoCube) -> Intersection entities
2. The dimensions for each fact table -> Strong entities
3. The dimension attributes with complete descriptions and proper terminology -> Attributes of the entities
4. The granularity (level of detail) of each fact table
5. The facts, including pre-calculated facts
6. The tracking options for historical data -> Dimensions that change slowly
7. The aggregations, heterogeneous dimensions, mini-dimensions, query modes, and other decisions about the physical storage of data
8. The life-span of the database (archiving aspects)
9. The time frame in which data is extracted and loaded into the data warehouse

These decisions form the basis of the initial database design. However, BW has many more modeling options not included in this list.

Star Schema Properties

  1. One process is modeled at a time l A star schema optimizes the storage of data for reporting purposes
    Characteristics are structured together in related branches called dimensions
    The key figures and other calculations form the facts
    This structure is identical for all application areas
In data modeling terms, the table structure in BW is known as a star schema. In a star schema, the ways in which we characterize a transaction are collected together in dimensions. The facts are the statistics and key figures (KPIs - key performance indicators) that customers use to understand their business processes.

The dimensions provide answers to questions about “who? what? and when?".
The facts answer questions such as “how much money, how many people and how much did we pay
them?” This star schema concept is used in all application areas.

Dimension Tables

From a technical point of view, the characteristics in the dimension table form the edges of the InfoCube.The dimensions are connected to the fact table by the dimension keys (DIM IDs).The data in the fact table is accessed when you select characteristics and their values from the dimension table. A corresponding SQL statement is generated, and this in turn accesses the fact table.

Fact Tables

Strong entities are the main characteristics that occur in the application that is being analyzed.The fact table contains the data (key figures) for a certain combination of characteristic values from the dimension tables.The fact table is referenced by the artificial dimension key (DIM-ID).Since artificial keys are used to connect the dimension tables with the fact table, it is relatively easy to make changes to the master data table, without having to regenerate the (natural) key every time. In an evaluation, a resulting quantity is formed initially from the selected values in the dimension tables. The artificial key selects this resulting set directly from the fact table.

Star Schema

The InfoCubes represent a multidimensional data model on the database server of a data warehouse.The facts are collected into separate fact tables and the dimensions are grouped into separate dimension tables. Both types of table are connected to one another relationally.This database schema is called a star schema. Structuring data warehouse information according to this schema guarantees highly efficient reporting and provides a flexible solution that is adjusted easily to changing business requirements.

Granularity of Data

Granularity is a term that describes how detailed a database is in a data warehousing context.Data that is “highly granular” or has “high granularity” is very detailed data, meaning that there are a large number of characteristics describing the key figures.For example, a ‘by customer’ level of granularity is less detailed than ‘by customer, by material’.Granularity is the fundamental criteria that determines the extent to which you are able to drill down on the data.Granularity also affects the size of the database. Data that is stored ‘by customer, by month’ is much more summarized than ‘by customer, by material, by day’. The quantity of data that is generated over the course of a year for the first case is much less than for the second case.
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Data Warehousing and SAP BW Overview

The main reason for implementing classic data processing systems has been the acceleration, cost reduction, and automation of processes in individual business areas. In this way, enormous potential for accessing information has sprung up in enterprises over the last few decades. To gain a competitive edge, decision-makers in modern, globally operating enterprises rely ever  more frequently on the effective use of this information; information that is unfortunately often spread across the most varied of areas in the business environment.

This is precisely the challenge that modern data warehouses attempt to meet. What is required are complete solutions that cover the whole process from the collection of source data to the final analysis. Solutions that are able to differentiate between metadata, dimension data, aggregation data, facts, and finally, solutions that include all of the necessary tools.

In heterogeneous system landscapes, the extraction and preparation of consolidated transaction data and master data from components and source systems from other providers, presents a particular challenge. The increasing demand for high-quality business information means that in addition to an integrated data-collection process, the options of a detailed data analysis and multimedia presentation of the analysis results are also required.The demand for data warehouse solutions that incorporate all of these features is immense. The following section looks at the most important demands that are made on a modern data warehouse to establish the criteria that decide how efficient a given data warehouse solution is.

Decision makers urgently need reliable information from the production, purchasing, sales and distribution, finance, and human resources departments. They require an up-to-date and comprehensive picture of each individual area of the business and of the business as a whole. The highest demands that are placed on the data collection process therefore originate from the underlying data sources.

The information must be stored in a homogeneous and consistent form at a central location from where it can be called up. For this reason, modern data warehouses require a separate database. This database enables a stand-alone application environment to provide the required services.On the presentation side, efficient analytical techniques with meaningful multimedia visualization are indispensable. The system must be able to cope with the information needs of the most varied of user groups.The demands made on the source systems are not so high. What is needed here is economic and comprehensive preparation of the data that is required by the data warehouse.

SAP Business Information Warehouse

It is against this background that SAP decided to develop its own data warehouse solution. In the SAP Business Information Warehouse, reporting tasks are gathered together in a stand-alone business component that is assigned to its own SAP system and runs on a separate server with its own database.All of the requirements and objectives mentioned so far have been met in the conception and architecture of the SAP Business Information Warehouse.A decisive advantage of the SAP Business Information Warehouse is the metadata repository. It gives you access to all of SAP's business know-how gathered over 29 years in software development for the commercial components can be configured as SAP source systems to make them available to the whole of SAP Business Content in the form of DataSources for a SAP Business Information Warehouse.

Operational environments (OLTP systems) are characterized by the following criteria:

  1. Detailed transaction data is essential
  2. ŸCurrent data is essential
  3. ŸPerformance requirements are relatively predictable
  4. ŸPatterns showing how users work in the systems can be predicted
  5. ŸData can be optimized for performance
  6. ŸHardware/software can be optimized based on performance characteristics
Decision-support environments (OLAP systems) are characterized by the following criteria:
  1. Integrated data is essential
  2. ŸHistorical data is essential
  3. ŸPerformance requirements are not predictable
  4. ŸPatterns showing how users work in the systems cannot be predicted
  5. ŸData can be optimized based on performance characteristics
  6. ŸHardware/software can be optimized based on performance characteristics

A data warehouse is:

  1. ŸDurable (non-volatile) - the data is stable, meaning that data from the second quarter of 2000 stays consistent over time.
  2. ŸSubject-oriented - the data focuses on the major subject areas of the business - customers or products.
  3. ŸTime -dependent - each set of data correlates with a specific time component.
  4. ŸIntegrated - data is combined from various operational systems and environments - manufacturing data, sales data, invoice data, and so on.
  5. Developed for the efficient processing of queries - the technical environment and data structures are optimized for answering business questions and not for processing transactions.
  6. Designed to be easily accessible - users are able to access the information they need easily and efficiently.

The open BW standard interfaces (BAPIs) enable the seamless integration of third-party extraction tools and third-party analysis tools.The data staging interface (staging BAPI) on the extraction side, and the analysis interface (OLE DB for OLAP: ODBO) on the reporting side, allow other software providers to certificate their products for use in the complementary software program (CSP).

Development: Integration and Collaboration

The SAP range of products has proven to be a powerful solution for companies that want to reduce their costs by integrating business processes and improve their supply chain.SAP products also support the development of Internet-compatible business processes. Here are a few examples:

ŸŸBusiness-to-Business Procurement was started in 1999. Business-to-Business Procurement:  Ecommerce business processes that enable employees to order goods and services directly from other companies. SAP B2B Procurement is an application provided by SAP that supports these business processes. A desktopWeb browser enables employees to order goods and services directly. The whole business process is supported, from the purchase requisition to paying the bill, and seamless integration with the ERP system is guaranteed. The advantages for companies include tighter control of procurement processes, a reduction in procurement costs, and less pressure on the purchasing department (fewer manual, paper-based operations).The Internet era has brought about new standards in easy-to-use user interfaces. The EnjoySAP initiative has redefined the interfaces of SAP applications to meet these new demands. Workplace

The Workplace gives users access to all the internal and external services and information that they need to complete their tasks.The application runs directly in a browser and delivers an easy-to-use and navigable Web-based frontend. This gives users access from their Workplace anytime, anywhere.

The Workplace is completely role -based and delivers to each user the information that is relevant to them. Available activities are displayed in a launch pad on the left-hand side of the Workplace portal. Users are required to log on once only. Once they are logged on, users are able to call any of the SAP applications that are relevant to their role. SAP applications are displayed using the new SAPGUI for HTML, which means that they are able to run directly in the browser.Internet applications and services are easily integrated into the Workplace.The Workplace is an active environment. The information that is important to users is displayed using MiniApps on the right-hand side of the portal.

Launch pad: Lists of activities that are tailor-made to fit each user's role. These activities can refer to functions in components, in non-SAP components, or on the Web. When a user carries out a function, the launch pad remains visible at all times. This makes navigating in the portal easier. MiniApps: MiniApps give users warnings (called alerts) and KPIs (Key Performance Indicators ) corresponding to their roles. Other examples of iView are: email, calender access, search engines, company-specific news, a selection from the BW reporting cockpit. Marketplace

The Marketplace is a public bus iness portal hosted by SAP.Anyone who is buying or selling can participate in the Marketplace.This portal is not intended for SAP applications or SAP customers.The aim of the Marketplace is to promote business collaboration between companies over the Internet.

The four main components of the Marketplace are:

Ÿmyhome: Personalized homepage for registered users (with favorites from the Web site).

Communities: High-content data organized according to industry (supported by SAP).

One-Step Business: The part of the Web site from which users are able to call the Internet pages of other members, to find out about and order products and services directly from this member.

Services: Internet services

BW in Context:

BW plays a central role in SAP’s strategic initiatives.Data warehousing is needed in many different applications. This is why the other applications in the strategic initiative use BW functions. This ensures that data is handled consistently in all the applications, and reduces the amount of training that is required to implement these applications.With you can integrate BW reporting as a MiniApp within the Workplace. 

BW and the Business Framework

The SAP Business Framework Architecture covers all of the requirements that must be met by a modern data warehouse solution. Under this motto SAP has recently transformed its R/3 system into a family of software components.This strategy is the result of discussions about issues such as how to implement new functions more quickly, flexibility, and openness. The technical prerequisites for transforming standard business software into individ ual components are met by existing tried-and-tested ALE and BAPI technology.A business component provides self-contained business functions with stable interfaces. This type of component has its own development, implementation, and maintenance cycles. Some components run on their own dedicated database.

The business components use object-oriented interface technology based on BAPIs (Business Application Programming Interfaces). A BAPI is a method belonging to a SAP business object. It represents a new level of interoperability between encapsulated SAP business components that can be networked.SAP uses application link enabling (ALE) and SAP business workflow to guarantee the integration of the whole system. This means that business processes can be applie d across different applications. 

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BEx Map in SAP Business Warehouse Concept Goes Further

BEx Map in SAP Business Warehouse Concept Goes Further is the continuation for the previous post. If you define an InfoObject as a dynamic geo-characteristic, the geographical length, width and height are created as additional attributes for your InfoObject. You can view these on the tab page "Attributes". Before geocoding, these attributes do not contain any data.


The procedure for geocoding with ArcView is outlined briefly here:

Open the ArcView and create a new project. Choose the pushbutton with the "Table" icon, and click on "Add". Load the exported table into your project. Load the map dbf file that you want to use. Start the geocoding from the sub-menu "Start Geocoding" from the SAP menu. Choose "Batch match" for the assignment. AV carries out the geocoding. Save the file as a csv file.

Loading Geo-coordinates

Once you have finished the geocoding, reload the enhanced master data into BW. Proceed as follows:

Create a PC source system for your InfoObject.
Create a flat file InfoSource for the geocoded InfoObject.
Create an InfoPackage
Start the master data upload.
Now you can use the dynamic geo-characteristic in a query definition and display it on a map.

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BEx Map in SAP Business Warehouse Concept Continued

BEx Map in SAP Business Warehouse Concept is discussed in the previous post and here is the continuation for that discussion. To be able to maintain the SAPBWKEY, you have to load the three files for the shape file to your local hard drive. However, you can only maintain the SAPBWKEY in the dbf file. You can maintain the SAPBWKEY in Excel or in ArcView - it is recommended that you use Excel for small amounts of data, since it is easy to operate.

Creating a Static Geo-Characteristic

Select the InfoObject in the InfoObject maintenance of the Administrator Workbench that you want to display as a static geo-characteristic. Open the "Business Explorer" tabstrip and choose the entry "Static Geo-Characteristic" from the drop-down menu (1). Before you can maintain the SAPBWKEY, you need the geographical data for the InfoObject. Load this to your local PC by choosing the button "Download Geo-Data" (2): Download Geo-Data (Everything) - if you want to maintain the SAPBWKEY with the InfoObject data for the first time. Download Geo-Data (Delta) - if you want to maintain the SAPBWKEY for new, additional master data in BW.

Exporting Master Data for Geo-Characteristics

Confirm with Transfer.

Maintaining SAPBWKEY with Excel

You usually copy the shape file from the relevant CD that you receive when you buy BW. In the course, however, because we are working in a training system, you use a different procedure (you load the shape file from the SAP Office folder) - your trainer will give you more precise information. You load the three files for the shape file from your local hard drive into the directory, into which you saved the geographical data for your geo-characteristic (usually SAPWorkDir).

In Excel, open the file with the geographical data for the geo-characteristic and the dbf file for the shape file Transfer the SAPBWKEY from the geo-characteristic file into the relevant column of the dbf file for the shape file.Do not change the order of the rows in the dbf file for the shape file when you are maintaining the SAPBWKEY in Excel! If you do this, it is no longer possible to correctly assign the geo-data to the polygon from the map. Save your entries and close the file.

Loading the Files for the Shape File

In the next step, you load the three files for the shape file into the BW Business Document Service,so that you can access the files when you execute a query with a map attached. In the InfoObject  directory in the AWB, choose the InfoObject that you defined as a geocharacteristic.On the tab page "Business Explorer" click on the button "Upload Shape Files". For each of the three files you get a separate dialog box, in which you confirm the loading process. Now you can use the geo-characteristic in a query definition and display it on a map. Using the "Edit Shape Files" function, you can view and edit the three files for the shape file in BDS.

Using Dynamic Geo-Characteristics in BW

If you want to use a dynamic geo-characteristic (to display isolated information on a map), you have
to use ArcView to geocode the characteristic. ArcView is GIS desktop software that offers extensive geographical functions. You receive ArcView when you buy BW. The following slides give a short overview of the geocoding procedure.

Maintaining Dynamic Geo-Characteristics

If you define an InfoObject (on the tabstrip "Business Explorer" in the InfoObject maintenance) as a dynamic geo-characteristic, the three attributes - geographic height, length and width - are automatically created for your InfoObject. You load this attribute in the form of a dbf file in ArcView and then geocode; that is, you attach real geographical coordinates to the corresponding geo-attributes for the InfoObject. You then load this data to your BW in the form of a csv file. The loading process is the same as loading data from a flat file into BW and uses an InfoSource that you have specified for it. 

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BEx Map in SAP Business Warehouse Concept

BEx Map in SAP Business Warehouse Concept is needed in the scenario like 

Your company wants to display certain query  results on geographical maps You want to use some of the static geocharacteristics immediately, and therefore need to know how to maintain the SAPBWKEY. You also want to find out how to display locational  information on a map.

BEx Map enables you to to display your query key figures on a map.

There is a whole range of display options:
  1. You can color different areas.
  2. You can insert graphics (bar charts or pie charts).
  3. You can display regional location information (on customers, branches, and so on) on the map in the form of circles, triangles, squares and crosses.
  4. You can call up the BEx Map from every query that contains geo-relevant characteristics.

Graphical Analysis with Layers

You can create maps with differing levels of detail above one another; the key figures are displayed
on different levels. If a key figure is used in a query with country, region, and postal code, for example, there can be three layers to the BEx Map. The relevant characteristic must, however, be activated for geographical analysis.

When you design maps, you must take into account that a higher map layer may cover the layer beneath it, if, for example, the upper layer represents a larger area, and is not transparent. When you display correlations between data on maps, they are more easily recognizable and enable you to make plans and act on the information shown.  

Advantages of the BEx Map

Integration of the BEx Map in BW

BEx Map is a fixed tool in BW that is integrated in two places, in the BW server as well as in the Frontend. In the Metadata Repository, you can find the extended description of InfoObjects that have been designated as geo-relevant InfoObjects.

You can find the master data of the geo-characteristics, which is expanded through additional attributes, in the master data table for the particular InfoObject on the BW server. According to the definition of static or dynamic geo-characteristics and the corresponding maintenance activities, you can display the information on a map simply by using the BEx Analyzer. By maintaining static geo-characteristics, you can use the BEx Map straightaway without the need for an additional tool. You need an additional tool only for the geocoding of dynamic geo-characteristics. The tool 'ArcView' (which BW customers can order free of charge from the company ESRI) allows you to geocode.

Maintaining Geo-Characteristics

Determining the Type of Geo-characteristic

Before you can use an InfoObject in the BEx Map, you have to define it as a geo-characteristic. You do this in the InfoObject maintenance in the Administrator Workbench. In the InfoObject directory, select the InfoObject that you want to use and open the maintenance mode. On the "Business Explorer" tab page, in the field "Geographical Type", enter the type of geocharacteristic that you require for the InfoObject. Activate the InfoObject in order to save the assignment.

The Structure of the Shape File

To be able to use the BEx Map immediately, BW customers receive a free CD containing maps (shape files). After a few simple maintenance activities, you can display static geo-characteristics on these maps. The shape files contain the data necessary for displaying the polygons for countries and regions on the BEx Map.

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SAP Business Warehouse Complex Reporting More Analasis

SAP Business Warehouse Complex Re porting been started and further discussed in the previous post  here finally we are going to further discuss this aspect and conclude here in this post.

Creating InfoSets

Give the InfoSet a name, and specify what kind of InfoSet you want to create. You get data for the InfoSet in the following ways (flag the option you want to use) (1). Reading the data directly from the table. Using a join to combine data from the selected basis table with data from another table (scheduled for a later date). Specifying a logical database to use as a data source. You also have the option of using a program to get data. Finally, define the field groups for your InfoSet (2).

Defining InfoSets

In the following view, you see the fields for your data source in the left-hand window. The data source fields that you have chosen for your InfoSet are displayed in the upper section of the righthand window. If you double-click on a field name (1) a dialog box appears, in which you enter the name you want the field to have later in the query definition and the InfoSet Query result (2). Using the drag-and-drop function, you can change the sequence, in which the fields appear, to suit your requirements. You can change the default field groups in any way you want to, simply group the fields logically.

Using the Extras function, you have the option of defining calculated fields, for example, and of creating extra program coding. A text field is available for the fields marked with a "T". When you have completed building the structure of your InfoSet, save it, and activate it (3).

Setting up Roles for the InfoSet Query

The InfoSet you created has to be assigned to one or more roles before you can execute it. Leave the Administrator Workbench, and return to the SAP Easy Access Menu. Open the SAP Menu by selecting the corresponding icon (1). Go into the role maintenance by choosing Business Explorer - InfoSet Query - Set up Roles for InfoSet Query (double mouse click) (2).

Role Administration for InfoSet Queries

Once you are in the role maintenance for InfoSet queries, you get to the screen displaying the available roles. Choose the Assign user group icon in the relevant row to select the role that you want
to assign the InfoSet to. In the dialog box that appears, either create a new user group, or choose one of the existing user groups.

Assignment to a user group means that the system makes an entry automatically in the corresponding role, allowing the definition of InfoSet queries, and calling the query builder. You only have to assign each role to InfoSets once - various InfoSets can then be assigned to this role. After the assignment, an icon appears in the Assign InfoSets column (2). When you choose this icon, you get a list of all the InfoSets that have been created so far.  

Assigning InfoSets to Roles

Select the InfoSet you want to use, and choose the Execute icon (1). In the Standard InfoSet column, a white dot appears in the row containing the InfoSet you have selected. Flag the dot with a mouse click (2). Choose the Save icon again (3) - this assigns the InfoSet to the role, and means that the users
assigned to this role can now use the InfoSet when they are defining InfoSet Queries. Important: You can assign several InfoSets to a role, but only the standard InfoSet appears in the user menu, where it acts as a default setting. If the user wants to access other InfoSets assigned to him or her, he or she has to call the general InfoSet maintenance from the SAP Menu.

Each role has to be assigned for working with InfoSets once only. If you want to assign a newly created InfoSet to a role that has already been assigned for working with InfoSets, simply choose the Role assignment icon in the InfoSet maintenance - you get a list of all the relevant roles, and can assign your InfoSet to the role you want from here.

Definition: InfoSet Query

To define a query based on the InfoSet that is assigned to a role, leave the role maintenance and return to the SAP Easy Access Menu. Choose the User menu icon (1). To call the definition, drag the cursor over the InfoSet Query entry in the menu, and click with the right mouse-button. Chose Execute: InfoSet Query (2). Alternatively, double-click on the corresponding point in the menu. If you have not assigned the InfoSet to your own role, you can use the Other Menu pushbutton to call the user menu for a role to which the InfoSet has been assigned. Check that the InfoSet assignment has been successful (you are not able to execute at this point).

You define the InfoSet Query by setting flags in the boxes placed after the individual field names available in the InfoSet. In the Output column, select the fields that you want to appear in the query result. You find them again in the lower window, once you have completed your selection (1). If, at  the beginning of a report, you want to see a dialog box with entry options as selection fields, use the flags in the Selection column (2). This allows you to make restrictions. You can also simply drag the field names into the selection or output areas.

The corresponding values from the data source are displayed in the lower window during the definition of the output fields. If you have defined all the fields for your InfoSet Query, execute it using either the Refresh function (3) - the data is displayed directly in the output area - or display the data in a window of its own by choosing the Output (4) button (Ad-hoc Reporting). If you want to be able to execute the InfoSet Query at a later date, save your definition, and assign it to your role (a dialog box appears once you have saved the InfoSet Query).

Executing the InfoSet Query

If you have saved the query in the user menu, you can call it from there at any time. Open the user menu (1). Drag the cursor over the name of the InfoSet Query, click with the right mouse button, and choose InfoSet Query: Execute: [Query name] (2). Users can start InfoSet Queries that they have saved in the user menu, either directly from the BEx Browser, or from the Workplace.

Displaying the Query Result

After the InfoSet Query has been executed, the result is displayed in the SAP GUI with the help of the SAP List Viewer. You can convert the list into an Excel or a Word file, and continue to work using the functions available in these programs. You can also display the query result in a Web browser (output using HTML GUI, MidiALV, or MiniALV). The query result can be sent by SAP Office mail.

SAP Business Warehouse Complex Reporting continued

SAP Business Warehouse Complex Reporting deals data extraction from sap data base.In the example too, you maintain the Sender - Receiver assignment in the Query Jump Targets menu. In the Sender field, specify the name of the query from which you want to start the drill-through (1). Choose the Create button (2). In the dialog box that appears, choose Transaction as the report type, and specify the name of the R/3 system in which you want to run the transaction. In the next window, reconfirm that you want to assign a transaction to the Sender-query, and type in the transaction code that you want to run (3).Confirm your entries. The transaction you chose is displayed in the list of Receivers (4). Save your assignment.

In the Business Explorer Analyzer, open the Sender-query to prepare to start the drill-through. On the worksheet, you position your cursor over the cell containing the value for which you want to see more information, specifically the information that is stored in the transaction (1). Choose Goto from the BEx Analyzer toolbar. The jump targets you assigned are displayed in the context menu. Click once with the mouse-button on the transaction you want to use (2). The settings in the connection _DIALOG control the jump into the R/3 system. A new SAP GUI session is started in the R/3 system, and the transaction is run.
InfoSet Query: Access
The InfoSet Query functions allow you to report using flat data tables (master data reporting).Choose InfoObjects or ODS objects as data sources. These can be connected using joins. You define the data sources in an InfoSet. An InfoSet can contain data from one or more tables that are connected to one another by key fields. The data sources specified in the InfoSet form the basis of the InfoSet Query.

Accessing InfoSet Maintenance from the SAP Menu

There are various ways of getting to the InfoSet maintenance. The easiest way is to use the SAP menu (1): In the Business Explorer, choose the path InfoSet Query - Maintain InfoSets (2).

InfoSet: Access from "InfoSet Maintenance"

You get a list of all the available InfoSets. Specify a name for your new InfoSet, and choose Create.  You assign your InfoSet to a user group here. From this screen you also display or modify existing InfoSets.

Accessing InfoSet Maintenance from the AWB

It is also possible to get to the InfoSet maintenance screen directly from the Administrator Workbench: In the data target directory, drag the cursor over an ODS object, or choose the InfoObject you need from the InfoObject catalog. Choose InfoSets from the context menu (right mouse-click) (1). Give the InfoSet a technical name, and choose the Create pushbutton (2). You can get to the general InfoSet maintenance area from this screen by choosing InfoSet Maintenance from the InfoSet dropdown menu (3).

Creating InfoSets

Give the InfoSet a name, and specify what kind of InfoSet you want to create. You get data for the InfoSet in the following ways (flag the option you want to use) (1). Reading the data directly from the table. Using a join to combine data from the selected basis table with data from another table (scheduled for a later date). Specifying a logical database to use as a data source. You also have the option of using a program to get data. Finally, define the field groups for your InfoSet (2).