Object Transport in SAP BW System Landscape

BW development projects usually take place not in the productive system, but in the development system. Depending on the scope of the project, developments may have to be checked in a quality assurance system, before they are transferred into the productive system. The development system, quality assurance system and productive system form a system landscape.There is a transport system in BW that transfers transport-relevant objects (for example, roles, InfoCubes, InfoSources, DataSources, InfoObjects, InfoPackages, ODS objects, and transfer and update rules) from one system to another.

The objects that you want transport are available in three versions:

Version D - SAP delivered version (valid for Business Content objects)
Version M - modified version
Version A - active version
You can only transport the objects after you have activated them.

To use the transport connection in BW, you have to complete the following requirements: Create a transportable development class in the ABAP Development Workbench (transaction code SE80) (1). Assign this development class to a transport request - when you create the development class, you automatically get a dialog box to this effect (2). At this point, you can create a new transport request or assign one that is already available.
Open the Administrator Workbench and call up the transport request, using the relevant button (3). Choose the objects that you want to transport, from the central window, and drag them with drag and drop to the right-hand window ("Collected Objects"). All new objects have the local development class $TMP by default; before the first transport, assign a transportable development class (4). From this point, the objects are automatically recorded, this means that when changes are made later, only the modified objects in the development class are transported.
Release the individual transport tasks, before you release the transport request. Then release the transport request that is assigned to the development class for transport (5). You do this in the Change and Transport Organizer (CTO), which you call up using the appropriate button. 


SAP's Role Concept
 
The development of the user role concept was based on the idea that employees within a company who have the same tasks may also use the same transactions, Internet links and reports. It makes sure that the individual users are able to see only what they need for the tasks they perform. A role describes the business tasks of its assigned users. If a user is assigned to a user role that is predefined by SAP, the menu designed for his or her task area automatically appears when they log on to the SAP system (for example, transactions, reports and/or Internet links) as well as the authorizations the user needs for his or her work.

SAP distinguishes between single and composite roles. The single roles contain the authorizations that users need to access, for example, the transactions and reports in the user-specific menu. Composite roles consist of several single roles. They do not receive any authorization data themselves, but get the authorizations from the single roles assigned to them. Use composite roles if some of your co-workers need authorizations for several single roles. This means you can assign user groups to one of the SAP composite roles instead of entering the required single roles for each individual user.

Regional sales managers are responsible for planning, organizing and converting the sales strategy.They supervise the sales targets and profitability in the sales department and have an overview of the sales employees and distributors. As well as monitoring the sales activities in general, sales managers can also check cost center activities.

Regional sales managers coordinate the budget and the forecast. They also report on the products and prices. Additionally, they follow the development of customer complaints. The Business Information Warehouse delivers information on the sales pipeline, the sales portfolio, and the budget, by requesting information on sales activities. 

From the task of regional sales manager, we derive the activities that can be assigned to this role. The regional sales manager needs, for example, current figures on incoming orders and deliveries, in order to monitor sales activities. The Business Information Warehouse delivers this information in the form of workbooks, which contain different queries. Every role is assigned one or more of these workbooks, which retrieve the required information. Moreover, you can assign R/3 and BW system transactions, MiniApps, Internet and intranet links to a role.

The Profile Generator

Authorizations are summarized into profiles that are directly assigned to the users or to a role. The profile generator is a tool with which the authorization administrator can automatically generate and assign authorization profiles. This simplifies the set up of the authorization environment with the SAP BW implementation guide. Before you create your own roles, you should check SAP's predefined roles for their usability. You can assign the delivered roles directly to the users. To makes changes to the roles, copy the SAP template then make the required changes.

Assigning Users to a Role

The users that you assign are permitted to carry out the transactions of the roles with the corresponding authorizations. The entered transactions are displayed in the SAP Easy Access Menu and in the BEx Browser for the user to see. You can record user's restrictions in the list as follows:

By single entry or by selecting via F4 Help
By multiple selection from a selection list
By choosing 'Org.Management‘
The user names are entered automatically next to the user ID in the second column. In the next two columns you can enter a validity period for the assignment. You can use the relevant pushbuttons to delete or add user IDs.

User Master Comparison

You assign the user to the authorization profile for the role using the user master comparison. Changes to users that are assigned to the role and generating their authorization profiles require a user master comparison. This compares the authorization profiles with the master user records, meaning, profiles that are no longer current are removed from the master user records and the current profiles entered. The status display for 'user comparison' is only green if it is green for the authorization profile. You can also have the user master comparison run automatically when you save the role. To do this, choose Utilities -> Settings from the menu and make the relevant selections for the automatic comparison there. If the option to run an automatic comparison is set when you press save, the process could take a little longer. To carry out the user master comparison, please take note of the information button on the user assignment toolbar.



Authorizations

With the right authorization, a user can carry out certain actions in the Business Information Warehouse. Every authorization refers to an authorization object and defines one or more values for each field in the authorization object. Individual authorizations are brought together into authorization profiles by the system administration with the profile generator. These authorization profiles are assigned to the users in their user master record.
There are preset and open authorizations for the transactions that you assign to the role. You can change the authorization data and then generate an authorization profile with the help of the profile generator. This authorization profile is then entered for the users of the role, when the user master comparison is run. How you set up the authorization check in BW reporting depends on a few conditions. For example, what type of queries are used, how detailed the authorizations are to be checked and how many users there are. The administration for authorizations, roles and user assignments takes place in the role maintenance screen.



An authorization object consists of no more than 10 authorization fields. To define an authorization,specify values for the individual fields in the object. Authorization objetcs can be used as connections between the authorizations, which are checked by the applications, and the given authorizations. You can create as many authorizations as you want for an authorization field, with different values and fields.

The administrator creates authorizations for the authorization objects, which characterize the object fields. There are authorization objects in BW in the Administrator Workbench area and also reporting authorization objects.

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Business Content; Roles and Authorizations for SAP BW

Under the generic term "Business Content", SAP delivers preconfigured objects for BW. Using Business Content objects, you can implement BW more quickly, since solutions are delivered that are ready for use straightaway for many business problems that you want to process with BW. The Business Content contains: 

R/3 extractor programs
DataSources
InfoObjects
InfoSources
InfoCubes
Queries
Roles
workbooks
The Business Content is continually being further developed; numerous specialists for the different industries and components are participating in this development.

Business Factors

The employees in your company have different requirements when it comes to type and scope of information. Using information resources optimally is always of high concern within a company. If individual employees can get the right information at the right time, they can then use it take the appropriate action. With growing competitive pressure, a company's ability to react quickly is essential. In the face of this, companies often attempt to have as many information sources as possible. However, this can lead to an unwelcome flood of information. Inconsistent or complex sources of information make you lose time when searching for data, therefore making it more difficult for you to react quickly.

The information that is already entered has to be adapted to the user's requirements. The majority of users prefer to work with predefined reports that are easy to access. These users need to be able to call up key figure values simply and easily. However, some users require extensive evaluation options. For example, they may want to navigate between certain sections of a report. As well as needing complete access to predefined queries and data collections, only a few users need to be able to create new queries and data sets in order to solve specific problems.

Business Content contains numerous objects that simplify the implementation of BW and accelerate the construction of an effective reporting system. These objects are grouped together to enable you to use them effectively: For all areas of your company and for many industry sectors, there are roles that provide users with the relevant reports and applications that they need to perform their tasks. In the future, cross-component applications called Analytical Applications will be available to provide direct access to all the information related to a process. They allow you not only to analyze these process, but also trigger actions and reactions in the systems that deliver data.

Areas particularly suitable for the implementation of Analytical Applications are, for example, Supply Chain Management (for example, supplier and catalog analysis, manufacturing analysis), Customer Relationship Management (for example, e-business analysis, market exploration) or analyses within the company, such as performance analysis, payment analysis, or human capital analysis.

Industry-specific Content

Industry-specific key figures and roles are also parts of Business Content. Examples of industry-specific roles:

Retail - Category Manager
Consumer Products - Key Account Manager
Pharma - Business Unit Manager
Banking - Account Manager
Media - Editor.
Automotive - Plant Manager
Oil & Gas - Exchange Manager

Business Performance Management with SAP BW

By linking key figures with other objects from the Business Content, you create the prerequisites for continually improving the efficiency of your company. The periodic generation of key figures (KPIs) gives you a clear picture of the results of the decisions made within your company. External providers, such as Dun & Bradstreet or A.C. Nielsen, deliver data to you from other companies in your industry that you can compare with the data from your company.



Business Content in Metadata Repository

The Metadata Repository offers the user the option of an overview of the entire Business Content delivered by SAP, or of seeing which Content objects are activated in the system. Navigate in the Metadata Repository using the hyperlinks. You can access the Metadata Repository in the Administrator Workbench, over an Internet server, or over local HTML pages. You can call up HTML pages from the Metadata Repository.

The Advantages of Business Content

Immediate access to interpreted information
Reports, data models, extractors, transformations
Consistency between business and administration processes
For employees on all levels and in all functions
Simple enhancement possible
Checked and comparable information
Comprehensive selection of standard key figures
Best practice model out of more than 2200 installations

Business Content Installation in Three Steps

With the setting 'Install Business Content' in the Administrator Workbench, you can copy the delivered Business Content and activate it. When you do this, the system automatically takes into account all the extra objects required as well as the activation sequence. In the menu 'Grouping', select the other Business Content objects you want to be included. Groupings bring together all the objects of one area. 'required objects only': Only those objects are taken into account that are essential for activating the selected objects (minimum selection).

'data flow before': All those objects are collected that provide data on one object.
'data flow after': All those objects are collected that get data from one object.
'data flow before and after': All those objects are collected that deliver data as well as pass it on.
'Security for system copy': With this setting you can collect only some of the objects for a transport request. You can incorporate this request again after a system copy.


To be able to start activating objects from Business Content, call the Administrator Workbench and
choose "Business Content". There are various ways of installing Business Content. You can select individual objects such as InfoCubes, InfoObjects or InfoSources and activate these with the objects assigned to them. If you use the SAP role concept, you can transfer roles from Content. When you transfer a role, all the necessary BW objects are activated.


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SAP BW Business Content Benefits

SAP BW Business Content has the following benefits .

Immediate access to interpreted information.
Ready-to-run reports, data models, extractors, transformations
Consistency between operational processes and management processes
For business professionals at all levels across all functions
Easy to build on
Validated and comparable information
Comprehensive set of standard key performance indicators
Best practice models from 800+ installations

Installing Business Content in Three Steps

The Install Business Content function in the Administrator Workbench copies and activates the delivered Business Content in your BW system. All the additional required objects and the sequence in which Business Content is activated is taken care of automatically by the system.From the Grouping menu, choose the additional Business Content objects that you want to include. Groupings gather together all of the objects from a single area:

Only Necessary Objects: Only those additional objects that are needed to activate the objecs that you have selected are included (minimum selection).
In Data Flow Before: All the objects that pass data on to another object are collected.
ŸIn Data Flow Afterwards: All the objects that receive data from another object are collected.
ŸIn Data Flow Before and Afterwards: All the objects that both deliver and receive data are collected.
Backup for System Copy: You use this setting to collect some of the objects into a transport request. This request can be added again after a system copy has been made.

Step 1: Checking Business Content Objects

You call the individual Business Content objects by dragging one of the symbols listed above from the left-hand window and dropping it into the central window.When you choose one of the symbols, the system displays the following lists of objects: 

InfoCubes: List of InfoCubes and aggregates according to InfoArea.
ŸInfoObjects: List of InfoObjects according to InfoArea and InfoObject catalog.
ŸInfoSources: List of InfoSources according to master data-InfoSources and transaction data- InfoSources.
Ÿ
Roles: List of roles according to industry.

ŸObject Types: A list of all the objects sorted according to type (InfoArea, InfoCubes, and so on).
Input help is available for each type. You can add the selected objects to the tree. This personal object list is stored for each user and is available each time the user starts the program.Objects in BW Patches: List of all the BW patches that are installed. The objects that are (re)delivered with each patch are displayed underneath.

Step 2: Selecting Business Content Objects

In this example a role is used to show how Business Content objects are transferred. If the new  version of a role delivered by SAP corresponds with the version of the role that is already active in the system, you are able to select, assign, and activate newly delivered Content objects directly.


Step 3: Transferring Business Content Objects

When you choose a role, all the objects that belong to this role are displayed in the Collected Objects column in the right-hand window. If you want to activate only those objects that you actually need in order to use the role, choose the Only Required Objects option under the Grouping function (see above).
 
You must transfer any objects that belong to the role but that you have not yet transferred into your system. In the Install column there is a flag icon displayed next to each of these objects. You can either leave or reinstall any objects that belong to the role and that you have installed already. If the option of comparing the Content version with the active version is available, this is indicated in the Match (X) or Copy column.
 
In the Install Business Content menu option, you have three further options: Running a simulation of the installation process, starting the installation process immediately, or starting the installation process in the background.Running the installation in the background is usually the best option to choose, because the process can take a long time, especially if you are installing a large number of objects or changing objects that are already active in the system. When the installation is complete, click on the Logs button to see a log that the system has written on the installation process.

You can choose to display the collected objects and their links as a list, a tree, or a network (in HTML format). Use the appropriate buttons in this window.


Business Content in the Metadata Repository

In the metatdata repository, users can look at an overview of the whole of SAP Business Content, or find out which Content objects are active in their system.You use hyperlinks to navigate in the metadata repository.You access the metadata repository from the Administrator Workbench, an Internet server, or local HTML pages.You can use the metadata repository to generate HTML pages.

Transporting Objects in a BW System Landscape

BW development projects do not usually take place in the productive system. They take place in a development system instead. Depending on the size of the project, new developments are checked in a quality assurance system before they are applied to the productive system.The development system, the quality assurance system, and the productive system make up a system landscape. The BW transport system is responsible for transferring transport-relevant objects (roles, InfoCubes, InfoSources, DataSources, InfoObjects, InfoPackages, ODS objects, transfer rules, update rules, and so on) from one system into another.

There are three versions of each transport-relevant object:
 
Version D - The version delivered by SAP (Business Content objects)
Version M - The modified version
Version A - The active version Only activated objects are transported.

Transport Connection: Overview

Before you are able to use the BW transport connection, the following prerequiites have to be met: In the ABAP Development Workbench (transaction code se80) you have to create a transportable development class (1). You have to assign this development class to a transport request - whenever you create a new development class the system displays a dialog box reminding you to do this. You either create a new transport request, or assign your development class to an existing transport request (2).
 
Open the Administrator Workbench and click on the Transport Connection button (3). In the center window, select the objects that you want to transport and use the drag-and-drop function to move them into the right-hand Collected Objects window. All new objects have the local development class $TMP by default. You must assign a transportable deveoplment class before you start the first transport (4). From now on, whenever the objects are changed, only the modified objects in the development class are transported.

Finally, release the transport request that you have assigned to the development class (5). You do this in the Change and Transport-Organizer (CTO) that you call by clicking on the corresponding button. Before you release the transport request, release the individual transport tasks.


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Business Content in SAP BW

Business Content is the umbrella term for the preconfigured BW objects delivered by SAP. These objects provide ready-made solutions to basic business information requirements and are used to accelerate the implementation of a BW.

Business Content includes:

Ÿ
 R/3 extractor programs
Ÿ DataSources
Ÿ InfoObjects
Ÿ InfoSources
Ÿ InfoCubes
Ÿ Queries
Ÿ Roles
Ÿ Workbooks
 
Business Content is evolutionary. With BW Release 2.0 SAP delivers Business Content solutions for specific industries and specific roles.

SAP BW Business Content is ... 
Data Staging: Extractors, DataSources, and InfoSources
Warehouse Management: InfoCubes, InfoObjects, and so on
Analysis: Queries, key figures
Information Utilization: Roles, workbooks
 
... in all business processes and applications 
... for different roles
... in different scenarios
 
(for example, repetitive manufacturing, discrete manufacturing, continuous manufacturing, and so  on) ... for different industries.

Information requirements and the way in which this information is used varies greatly between information-users.Companies are always looking for ways to optimize the way they use their information resources.employees with access to the right information are able to respond more effectively. As pressure from competitors increases, a company’s ability to react quickly becomes more and more critical.

Authoring Requirements

It is important that information is tailored to meet the needs of the user.In a typical environment the majority of users work best with static reports that are easy to access.This type of user needs to be able to access the same set of key figure values easily and frequently.However, users with more complicated requirements need more sophisticated reporting options. For example, you might want to navigate to different sections of a report.For some users, complete access to predefined queries and collections of data is not enough. They need to be able to generate new queries and data sets to help them solve specific problems.





Business Content contains a range of objects that simplify the implementation of a BW and speed up the construction of an effective reporting system.These objects are grouped together so that you are able to use them effectively: For all the reports in your company, and for many separate industires, there are roles that give users direct access to the reports and applications that enable them to do their jobs.

Cross-component applications called Analytical Applications are being developed that allow you to access related information about a process. Analytical Applications not only enable you to analyze the process itself, they also allow you to act and react directly in the systems that deliver the data. Areas in which Analytical Applications are implemented include Supply Chain Management (Supplier and Catalog Analysis, Manufactoring Analysis, and so on), Customer Relationship Management (e-Business Analysis, Market Exploration, and so on), or analyses in a company such as performance analysis, payment analysis, or human capital analysis.




Example: Regional Manager

For example, a regional manager needs access to a broad spectrum of information to enable him or her to make effective decisions. A Business Content role brings this data together in the form of queries and workbooks containing exactly the type of information the manager needs.




Industry-Specific Content

Industry-specific processes, key performance indicators, and roles are all part of Business Content. Ÿ Retail - Category Manager: Specialist in customer behavior, top and flop products.Consumer Products - Key Account Manager: Understands the effect of promotions on market share.
Pharmaceutical - Business Unit Manager: Detailed market share index, down to the level of the individual physician (IMS).
ŸBanking - Account Manager: Specialist in customer profitability, identifies cross selling opportunities.
ŸMedia - Editor: Plans advertising campaigns.
ŸAutomotive - Plant Manager: Monitors just-in-time production.
ŸOil & Gas - Exchange Manager: Analyzes the exchange balance, movements, and so on.


Key performance indicators (KPIs) increase the value of the information stored in BW, because they are recognized across different industries. Key performance indicators support the decision-making process.KPIs are developed based on input from customers, partners, and industry experts to ensure that they reflect current best practices.

Combining KPIs with other aspects of Business Content provides a robust environment in which you are able to optimize the performance of your business.KPIs are calculated regularly to give you a clear picture of the results of your business decisions.With industry data provided by third-parties such as Dun & Bradstreet and A.C. Neilsen, you can compare (benchmark) your company's performance with the performance of other companies in your industry.



You use the drag-and-drop function to select the Business Content objects you need. The components that the objects belong to are activated automatically. Once the activation process is complete and data has been loaded, you are able to use the whole scenario.

Business Content: Benefits

Immediate access to interpreted information n Ready-to-run reports, data models, extractors, transformations
Consistency between operational processes and management processes
 
For business professionals at all levels across all functions
Easy to build on
 
Validated and comparable information
 
Comprehensive set of standard key performance indicators
Best practice models from 800+ installations


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Authorizations in SAP Business Warehousing

Business scenario for Authorizations in SAP Business Warehousing is relevant in the following scenario.Your company has decided that it must restrict access to potentially sensitive cost center information. Cost center managers must only be able to see data about their own particular cost centers. 

You have to create new reporting objects to protect data from particular cost centers from being accessed.
 
You use the role-maintenance functions to apply the authorization concept.

Authorization objects are the link between the authorizations that are checked by programs and the authorizations that are given to a user.A role contains a collection of authorizations known as a profile. When a user is assigned to a role,the or she is given the authorizations included in the profile of the role.

A role is a combination of activities or tasks that are the responsibility of an individual user.Authorizations or menu objects that the user needs in order to be able to fulfil a particular role, are assigned to the user in the role maintenance (transaction PCFG).You must no longer use the old transactions for maintaining authorizations (SU02) and profiles (SU03). Use transaction PFCG instead. Many standard roles are delivered with Business Content.

USER MASTER RECORD IN SAP BW

There is a user master record for every SAP BW user. User master records can be assigned to roles. A user master record can be assigned to more than one role.Profiles can be used in as many user master records as required. If you change the authorization for an authorization object, the change affects all of the user master records that are assigned to profiles containing this authorization.

Roles

Contain a combination of transactions and workflow tasks required by activities in your organization  for example, auditor, sales representative
Contain a date-dependent authorization profile that assigns the necessary authorizations for each activity
Are assigned to organizational objects for example, jobs, positions
Allow the date-dependent assignment of authorization profiles to user master records

Roles can have more than one period of time in which they are valid (a validity period). Each validity period can have variations in the transaction selection or authorization profile data. Validity periods  may not overlap one another.Within a role, transactions are assigned using the company menu. This enables the profile generator tool to retrieve the required authorization objects and the default authorization values from the configuration tables.The company menu must be configured first. You also need decide beforehand, which authorization objects are relevant for which transaction.

Role maintenance is a tool that allows authorization administrators to generate and assign authorization profiles automatically. This simplifies the task of setting up the authorization environment during the implementation of the SAP BW.Role maintenance contains the following steps: 

Selecting transactions from the company menu
ŸRetrieving all the authorization objects for the selected transactions
ŸGenerating authorizations once the field restrictions have been determined for each authorization object
ŸGrouping authorizations into profiles that are generated automatically
 
The administrator has only to configure the customer-specific settings, such as:

ŸThe company menu
ŸActivating the transactions that are available for the customer
ŸMaintaining the scope of authorization checks in transactions
ŸAssigning the authorization objects that are relevant to a transaction
ŸAssigning default values for authorization object fields on an organizational level

Roles: Maintaining Authorizations

The structure has the following levels:

Level 1: Classes for authorization objects
Level 2: Author ization objects
Level 3: Authorization(s)
Level 4: Field values for authorizations


If you change a role, you have to regenerate the authorization profile that belongs to it.Once the authorization profile has been created, you can give it a descriptive name. Otherwise, the name generated by the system is used.

Using Templates in Role-Maintenance

A selection of the templates for roles that are delivered with SAP BW:

  1. S_RS_RDEAD Role: Administrator (development system)
  2. S_RS_RDEMO Role: Modeler (development system)
  3. S_RS_ROPAD Role: Administrator (live system)
  4. S_RS_ROPOP Rolle: Operator (live system)
  5. S_RS_RREDE Role: Reporting Developer (live system)
  6. S_RS_RREPU Role: Reporting User

You can also create your own role templates. They contain default values for the corresponding  authorizations that refer to different authorization objects for you to include in your new roles.

Using role templates makes it easier to create authorizations and authorization objects.Customer-defined templates must not start with the letter "S". 

 The Business Content supplied with  SAP BW provides many examples of roles across all segments of an enterprise. These can be used to quickly model the job functions within your enterprise.

 
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SAP Business warehousing Tracking History

In the following business scenario we are in need of SAP business warehousing is needed.

As a member of the BW project team you are interviewing users to find out what they require from sales reports according to material group.One particular question that has been asked is what happens to the reports if a material changes material group, for example, from Food to Chemical, in the middle of a period?The users have many different opinions on this issue.

Often different users have different ideas on how to track historical data. In this section, we are going to look more closely at the four scenarios shown below.






Historical Data: The Role of the Fact Table

Changes that occur over time are usually taken into account when transaction data is loaded into the fact table.Each data record in the fact table is identified by a unique combination of generic dimension keys representing a unique combination of characteristic values that are taken directly from or are made up from the transaction data.

Example: Customer 'X' purchases material 'A' on day 'Y'. This new relationship between 'A', 'X', and 'Y' becomes a new record in the fact table.The fact table usually shows only events that have actually taken place and not events that have not happened!

If we have a combination of characteristics that is identical to a combination of characteristics currently in the fact table, the key figures for the incoming data are aggregated with the facts that are already in the table.* Ÿ *usually only the package dimension is different, because it identifies different loads of data.The fact table is not able to record the sentence; “We have NOT received a sales order for 100 cartons from company XYZ Inc.”.

Changes to attributes in different dimensions (a sales transaction, for example) as shown in the previous slide make up the day-to-day business of a data warehouse.How do we deal with changes to attributes in the same dimension?

Example: Marital status 
What products do married people buy?
Which products did married people buy last year?

You must consider system performance and the option of creating aggregates for time-independent attributes. You must also consider how and if to reconstruct the InfoCube in the event that the model with a characteristic as a dimension is chosen and the master data changes again.

Modeling Methods: A Comparison

Other considerations:

ŸThe value of historical data decreases over time.
ŸIt is possible to combine Scenario A with other scenarios.




Category Dimensions

Support reports by generating artificial attributes that classify a characteristic.Customer is classified by income group, size, and so on.

Category dimensions are usually connected to attributes rather than to characteristics.
Income bracket - customer income n Size of customer - annual sales, potential sales, debts. and so on Whether you create category dimensions or hand over the categorization process to a query depends on:how complex the categorization process is
how frequently categorization is used in queries
The decision to create a category dimension comes from the MDM

If you want to use a query for categorization purposes, you need to include all the customers, whose income is greater than X but less than Y. Category dimensions allow you to use the Income  characteristic with the values A < 1000, 1001 < B < 5000, and 5001 < C < 6000 during the data transfer. The user simply filters out all the “B” customers.

If the categorization changes, you need to ask the same questions as discussed in the section on ‘slowly changing' dimensions.From an analytical point of view, the attributes in the category dimension have to be stored in the master table of the categorized characteristic.In BW category dimensions are usually part of the dimension of the categorized characteristic.Use aggregates with category attributes. 

Experts talk of a 10-20 to one relationship between the size of the fact table and the size of the dimension tables. Although the optimal relationship is difficult to determine, a large fact table and smaller dimension tables provide the best system performance.In some cases, you may want to find out more detailed information on line-item dimensions. 

Degenerate Dimensions

Degenerate dimensions occur in nearly every case where the granularity of the fact table corresponds to a single document, for example an order number or invoice number.In a degenerate dimension with order numbers, all the descriptive attributes are located in other dimensions.Characteristics, for example, order numbers, summarize the data into groups. This enables you to analyze the materials in an order.

Line-Item Dimensions

If the situation described below occurs with an InfoObject (meaning that the dimension table is approaching the same size as the fact table) in BW 2.0 and later Releases the dimension must be designated as a line-item dimension during the design phase of an InfoCube. This dimension can be assigned to exactly one InfoObject (the line-item InfoObject).

When you activate the InfoCube, NO database tables are generated for this dimension. Instead, a field with the data element RSSID is written to the fact table. This field refers directly to the SID table for the InfoObject. 

In other words: The dimension table is no longer used.In the star schema diagram:

ŸInfoCube -> Dimension -> InfoObject (for this line-item InfoObject) becomes
ŸInfoCube -> InfoObject.
 
The LISTSCHEMA transaction shows the fact table with a pointer aimed directly at the SID of a single characteristic that has been placed in the line-item dimension.Each characteristic can be a line-item - even Customer or Material. 



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SAP BW Data Modeling

SAP BW Data Modeling is needed in the following scenario.You need to evaluate all the available  modeling options to find out how you can best maximize system performance and meet the complex demands that your company makes on historical reporting.You must consider many different options, including combined InfoCubes.

A RemoteCube is an InfoCube, whose transaction data is managed externally instead of in the Business Information Warehouse. Only the structure of the RemoteCube is determined in the BW. A BAPI from a second SAP system or from a non-SAP system is used to read the data for reporting. A SAP RemoteCube is a RemoteCube that allows you to define queries with direct access to transaction data in other SAP systems.

Report from BW as a substitute for reporting tools in source systems.
Standardized and modern user-interface.
Cross-application reporting.
 
Provide real-time access to transaction data in one or more operative systems.Direct access or replication?
 
Use the available BW infrastructure.
 
Extraction programs
Service API
BW metadata model
Transfer rules

RemoteCubes: Extracting Transaction Data

A RemoteCube allows you to report on data in an R/3 or in a non-SAP system, without having to store the transaction data physically in the BW. For example, you are able to use a RemoteCube to access the external systems of market data providers.This reduces the amount of administration required on the BW side, and the amount of memory space that is required.


RemoteCubes: Restrictions

Only for transaction data.
Replication is still the only option for master data, texts, and hierarchies.
Small volume of data.
Few end-users.
Additional requirements to be met by the extraction programs.
Selective, the most important characteristics.
Default aggregation (where appropriate).
No inversion of customer exits (in SAPI).
Available from SAP Source System Release 4.0B.

You use SAP RemoteCubes if
 
you require very up-to-date data from a SAP source system.
you access only small amounts of data infrequently.
only a small number of users work with queries on the database at the same time.
 
You do not use SAP RemoteCubes if
 
large amounts of data are requested in the first navigation step in the query and there are no suitable aggregates in the source system.
large numbers of users work with the queries simultaneously.
you access the same data frequently.

SAP RemoteCubes: Definition

Prerequisites:
 
Source system is at least Release 4.0B and SAPI 2.0B is installed (Plug-In 2000.1)
DataSource is accessible directly and is assigned to an InfoSource
Transfer rules have been generated
Source system IDs maintained
 
Procedure:Define and activate a SAP RemoteCube based on an InfoSource (possibly restricted to a unique source system)
Assign source systems to the RemoteCube
Define queries

A source system must meet the following requirements before you are able to assign it to a SAP RemoteCube:
 
The BW-BCT 2.0B component has been installed.
The source system is at least a Release 4.0B.
In the BW, a source system ID has been created for the source system.
DataSources from the source system are assigned to the InfoSource of the SAP RemoteCube.

These DataSources are released for direct access, and there are active transfer rules for the combinations.

Transfer Rules

When a query is executed for a RemoteCube, the selection parameters are passed to the OLAP processor which in turn generates inverse transfer rules to convert the selection parameters to a form usable on the OLTP system.Data is selected for the query on the OLTP system.The selected data is transmitted back to BW throught the transfer rules used for the RomoteCube and on to the OLTP processor which presents the results of the query. No data is stored on the BW system.

MultiCubes:

You can create a RemoteCube for Nielsen data, for example. Nielsen data is stored in an external system that provides remote access. This means that you can create queries and data that is accessible remotely, without loading the data onto the BW database.

A MultiCube is a higher-level InfoCube that gathers together data from several BasicCubes or several RemoteCubes and puts it into a common context. The MultiCube itself does not contain any data. The data is supplied exclusively by the BasicCubes or RemoteCubes on which the MultiCube is based. SAP recommends that you create MultiCubes based on BasicCubes that have at least one characteristic in common.
 
A MultiCube allows you to report on several BasicCubes or several RemoteCubes.MultiCubes only exist as a definition. The data remains in the BasicCubes.The concept of the MultiCube allows data to be staged faster, because only smaller BasicCubes need to be filled.

By combining into a MultiCube the shared characteristics and the different key figures of the BasicCubes, you are able to execute queries on the data that is stored in the fact tables of the BasicCubes.This concept provides you with advanced analysis options, without you having to fill new and extremely large InfoCubes with data.

A query for a MultiCube is subdivided into several queries for the corresponding BasicCubes. You can process these queries in parallel. This gives you additional improvements in system performance. The OLAP processor presents the combination of the single query result set as a MultiCube query result.

What do you do if ...

MultiCubes: Modeling
 
one of the key figures is present in both InfoCubes?
 
Use the key figure from one of the InfoCubes if the information is intended for the same characteristics.
Use the key figure from both InfoCubes if the characteristic values do not overlap.
a characteristic in the MultiCube corresponds to both a characteristic and a navigation attribute in one of the BasicCubes?
Select one only to use.
 
a characteristic in the MultiCube does NOT correspond to any object in a specific BasicCube?
Do not include the characteristic in the MultiCube. It is confusing for users if no values are returned when they request a combination of characteristics.

There are certain considerations that you must make to ensure that users are provided with meaningful data.If there are key figures that are common to both InfoCubes, the information that is displayed in the reports can be incorrect.

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SAP BW Operational Data Store

SAP BW Operational Data Store is needed in the following business scenario.

You often want to combine the information contained in several DataSources before you store the data in InfoCubes.

Some analyses also need to access data that is more detailed than the data stored in the InfoCube. The ODS must make this detailed data available to the query.

It is your job to evaluate the ODS functions and find out if they meet these requirements.

Operational Data Store: Advantages

The ODS provides:

An overwrite function

for (non-central) characteristics
for key figures
 
Storage for data on the document level

Consolidated or overwritten
Cleansed
 
Reporting
 
Drilldown from InfoCube to ODS
Directly on the ODS

It is not possible to overwrite data in the InfoCube. Any data that is added to the InfoCube is aggregated (summarized). This is required by the architecture of the InfoCube. You are, however, able to overwrite data in the ODS. This expands the range of options available in BW.Somewhere is needed for the data to be consolidated and cleansed. This is important when data is uploaded from completely different source systems. After data has been consolidated and cleansed, it can be uploaded into the InfoCubes.

Before the ODS was introduced into BW, the data in the InfoCube was the only factor that determined the level of detail (granularity) of the data. Today, the InfoCube can be less granular, because data can be stored over a longer period of time. In contrast, the ODS has a high level of granularity, but it stores data for shorter periods of time.You report on ODS data in a variety of ways.

BW PSA / ODS Architecture

The PSA allows you to use transfer rules to upload data into the BW ODS (Operational Data Store). In the graphic, the ODS is displayed as a single level. Depending on the business scenario, the BW ODS can also take the form of a structure consisting of several levels.The ODS objects in the inbound level of the BW ODS provide subject-oriented, consolidated, and integrated data that refers to a process that is common to different source systems.Data from the ODS is updated in the appropriate InfoCubes or in other ODS objects.ODS reporting takes place using the OLAP processor or directly using an ODS query. 


Architecture: BW ODS

The following slide shows the second stage in the process of saving detailed data - the BW ODS: 

When data is transferred from the PSA into the ODS, transfer rules cleanse the data records and standardize them so that they are valid as characteristic values throughout the company. If it is appropriate to do so at this stage, business logic, in the form of update rules, is also applied.

Data from several InfoSources is consolidated into an ODS object. For example, you might want to combine the data from the Order InfoSource, the Delivery InfoSource, and the Billing InfoSource and use it to report on the status of orders.

Once the data has been saved or during the update of the data in the ODS, you have the option of making technical changes and changes to the data itself. In the ODS, the data is stored in a denormalized data structure. Key fields and non-key fields are determined by the customer.
 
The ODS is made up of consolidated data from several InfoSources on a detailed (document) level, which means it supports the analysis of documents. You run this analysis either on the contents of the ODS table directly, or using an InfoCube query to create an ODS request in the form of a drilldown.

In the context of the ODS, the PSA is the first level of the ODS and the ODS table is the second level of the ODS. The first level, therefore, consists of transaction data from the source system, and the second level consists of consolidated data and the data from several source systems and InfoSources.


An ODS object consists of three tables. When data is uploaded from the PSA it is stored in the table that is shown below as Modified and New Data . The data is activated from this table - once data is active you are able to use it for reporting.

The other two tables are called the Active Data table and the Change Log table. Active data is used in reporting. The change log is used to update InfoCubes or additional ODS objects, or as a data mart for the PSA to different BW systems.

Delta updates are supported:Ÿ ODS - ODS Within the same system: Export-InfoSource generated automatically.
ŸODS - InfoCube Within the same system: Export-InfoSource generated automatically. 
ODS - PSA Different systems: Export-InfoSource must be generated manually.


BW ODS: Detailed Data Flow

The following graphic shows all of the components that are involved in the flow of data from a  source system,through the BW ODS, and finally into the InfoCube.Note that the communication structure that is linked to the InfoCube by a series of update rules cannot be changed, since it is simply a representation of the object structure in the BW ODS.The first step in processing data from the ODS into the InfoCube is to select the Generate Export- DataSource function for the ODS object.

BW ODS: Object Reporting

There are three possible scenarios for analyzing ODS data. In the first scenario, you use an ODS query to analyze the data in the ODS object directly. However, this is not usually the most efficient way to access the data.

The second scenario involves the report/report interface (R/RI). A query analyzes the data in an InfoCube and uses the R/RI to drill down to the ODS and access more detailed data.

In the third scenario, you access the original documents directly, such as the original purchase order in the OLTP system. From the ODS you are able to access the source system directly and run an R/3 transaction or start an existing report.


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Properties of SAP BW Queries

SAP BW InfoCube Maintenance

SAP BW InfoCube maintenance has requests which plays vital role.n Assigning a unique key to each request and each data record within the request, means that the requests provide a chronological record of the update process. The unique key is generated by the system. It allows the system administrator to identify any particular upload sequences that result in errors.This function enables you to isolate the particular part of the data packages where errors have been identified and extract only this part.Only requests with green traffic light status update the InfoCube that they belong to. If an error occurs in the upload, all subsequent uploads (requests) are also given the red traffic light status.The red traffic light means that no InfoCube update has taken place. This procedure has been designed to prevent inconsistent data conditions finding their way into InfoCubes.

Rolling- Up InfoCubes

You can start rolling-up the requests for constructing aggregates immediately or in the background.You can display existing InfoCube aggregates and their logs.If activated aggregates exist for the InfoCube and you load new requests into the InfoCube, you have to roll-up these new requests in the aggregates as well. The new requests are not referred to during the execution of a query until you do this.Data packages are given the green traffic light status when the quality of the data in them has been assessed and approved. You can use the roll-up to load these data packages automatically.


You can compress an InfoCube by deleting the request IDs. This saves space on the memory.This function is critical, because it means that you are no longer able to use the request IDs to delete the compressed data from the InfoCube. Before you proceed, make sure that the data in the InfoCube is correct.You must compress the InfoCube at regular intervals. This saves space.



Reconstructing InfoCubes

You can reconstruct an InfoCube from the requests that have been uploaded already. You can use these requests to reconstruct the current InfoCube or a different InfoCube.

 
Transferring the Contents of InfoCubes

The metadata repository in the Administrator Workbench enables you to extract InfoCube data to an external file. This is useful if you want to use parts of the collected data in other analysis tools.In the Modeling area, choose the Manage option from the context menu of any InfoCube.Select the InfoCube from the top half of the screen and click on the Display Contents pushbutton.You must make the following settings on the selection screen:

Select the fields for output in the file
Specify selection values for characteristics
Specify the location of the file, the type of file, and the file name
Transfer the data.
 
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