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SAP BW Key Figures and Characteristics

Calculated SAP BW Key Figures

You can define calculated key figures at both query level and InfoCube level. At the query level, the calculated key figure is only valid for the query in question. If the calculated key figure is created at Cube level, it can be used in all queries that are based on this InfoCube.

Examples of using operators:
Basic functions :** potential ("Incoming orders" ** 3) The third potential of incoming orders.
ŸPercentage functions : %A percentage ("Sales" %A "Incoming orders"): The percentage of Sales accounted for by incoming orders.%CT percentage share of the result (%CT "Incoming orders"): The percentage of incoming order values of each characteristic value accounted for by the result of the characteristic. 
Data function:SUMCT result (SUMCT "Incoming orders"): The total value of all incoming order values for a characteristic is listed for each characteristic value. 
Mathematical functions : MAX Maximum ( MAX ["Incoming orders", "Sales volume"]): Returns the maximum value from both key figures to a value in this formula.
Trigonometric functions : SIN Sine (SIN["Incoming orders"]): Calculates the sine value for each incoming order value.

Boolean Operators

With the help of the Boolean operators, you can make comparisons within formulas.You can use the following operators:

- is less than < - is less than or equal to <=
- is not equal to <> - is equal to =
- is greater than > - is greater than or equal to >=
- logical UND AND - logical NICHT NOT
- logical ODER OR - logical exclusive-ODER XOR

With Boolean operators, you can use "IF-THEN-ELSE" scenarios.

Properties of Key Figures

In the query definition, you can change the names of all the key figures used in the analysis. You can change the column header as you like and therefore reduce the column width, which depends on the length of the header.Choosing Highlighting makes key figures appear bold in the workbook.You can hide key figures that you only need for calculating formulas, and do not want to display in the report.You can specify a currency translation factor for each value key figure when you define the query.You can also specify a scaling factor ( in 1000, for example) or the number of decimal places. If you are using formulas in columns and lines within a query, there is a clash of formulas when they intersect. You can define which formula takes priority at this point.

Currency Translation

A currency translation in the Business Information Warehouse can take place at two points.When the data is updated to the InfoCube. You can specify a separate currency for each key figure.When the data is analyzed in the Business Explorer. 

You have the following options:For the individual query elements (key figure, characteristic, structure), you can set translation values in the query definition. All query values are displayed in the currencies that are saved on the database. All query values can be translated into one common target currency with an exchange rate type.You can make this setting when you define the query or create a currency variable beforehand. A default menu appears when you start the evaluation, where you can select the target currency you require.

Defining Restricted Key Figures

Restricted key figures are (basic) key figures of the InfoCube that are restricted (filtered) by one or more characteristic selections.By using restricted key figures, you can focus the query result on certain values. They are used to implement scenarios such as planned/actual comparisons for a key figure if the planned data is stored with a specific characteristic.

Procedure for creating restricted key figures:

ŸDrag a (basic) key figure to the query definition and choose Edit from the context menu. Select the list of key figures and choose New Selection from the context menu. This brings you to the New Selection input template. The top part of the screen contains the text field in which you can enter a description for the restricted key figure. In the section underneath, all the available objects of the InfoCube are displayed in the left part, and in the right is an empty field for the definition of the new selection. Drag the key figure you require to the definition field and restrict it by selecting one or more characteristic values. Choose OK. The new restricted key figure is now defined and available in the structure.

Properties of Characteristics

You can control the way in which the characteristics and results are displayed using the characteristic
properties (key/name, hiding the total, norming, cumulating).You have the option of selecting a presentation hierarchy for the characteristic.For each characteristic, you can assign and choose the type of display attributes.

Hierarchies in the Analysis

You can define a hierarchy in the characteristic properties for viewing in the workbook. If the Characteristic also supports version-specific hierarchies, you can also define a hierarchy version.Since hierarchy nodes are often created for specific times, you can define a date or an InfoObject for specifying the time. Activate the hierarchy display by checking the active box.Only one query characteristic can be drilled down in the hierarchy at any one time. The characteristic is structured in stages. The drilldown contains the hierarchy nodes of the selected hierarchy. By further expanding the hierarchy (or by clicking on the hierarchy symbol), you can display the lower levels. Characteristic values that are not classified in the hierarchy appear in the result area in the "Unassigned" row. If a characteristic with a hierarchy is sorted according to its key and name, the "Unassigned" node appears at the end of the structure.

You can use the "Expand hierarchy - to level" function to evaluate data for the individual hierarchy levels. You can also expand or compress the hierarchy by clicking the hierarchy icons. Expanding a hierarchy means displaying the levels that are below the level currently marked by the cursor. Conversely, you can reduce or compress a hierarchy by one or more levels.You can define the layout of the hierarchy (indent and hierarchy buttons) with the "Change formatting" function.

Creating User-defined Hierarchies

By creating your own hierarchies, you can implement any drilldown sequence and summation levels for your analyses.In the BEx Analyzer you can eine cumulate the totals over four levels, depending on the width of the hierarchy indentation. The setting "Narrow" allows you to display 13 hierarchy levels, "Normal" gives you seven, "Wide" five and "Very wide", four. If you exceed the maximum number of hierarchy levels, the next level is displayed under the highest.You can create hierarchy versions if this is supported by the InfoObject of a characteristic. Similarly, the possibility of defining time-dependent nodes in the hierarchies depends on the InfoObject settings.

Attributes in the Analysis

As long as the characteristic has attributes, you can display them in the workbook. Click the right mouse button on the relevant characteristic in the query definition and choose Properties. You can now copy the attribute you want, and specify how each attribute is to be displayed (key, name, or key and name).In the query definition, you can define a key date for the attributes under Query Properties, Key Date. You can select the key date from a calendar or with a variable you already created.You cannot use display attributes for navigation purposes.

Navigation Attributes

You can convert a display attribute to a navigation attribute by making a minor change in the InfoCube. The navigation attribute then has characteristic status and is displayed in the dimsension of the original characteristic. n Since navigation attributes are time dependent, you can summarize the information with respect to a key date. However, this can lead to slower performance times compared with the use of characteristics.

Creating Queries with Variables

You can use variables for a more flexible query definition.First, you must create the variables for characteristic values, texts, formulas, hierarchy nodes, or hierarchies in BW's variable maintenance. The variables are only processed and filled with values when the query is inserted into a workbook. Depending on the variable type and selected processing type, the variables can be entered, modified
or automatically processed before the query is executed.

Ways to Process Variable Types

The processing type "manual entry / default value" applies to all variable types. It is set up so that you can enter the value manually in a dialog window when inserting the query into the workbook. When you create the variables, you can specify whether you want the default value to be used when you start the query.The processing type "replacement path" is available for the variable types "texts" and "formulas". If a variable is processed by means of a replacement path, it is automatically replaced by the corresponding characteristic value. When creating the variables, maintain the replacement path data.Choose whether it should be replaced by the "from" or "to" value, and by the key or name of the characteristic value. You can also determine the offset start and offset length for the output.The "customer exit" processing type for variables enables you to determine default values for variables by means of a function module exit. You can process all variable types (characteristic value, node, hierarchy, formula and text variables) using the "customer exit" processing type.

SAP exit: Variables with this processing type can only be created in SAP systems. They are part of the Business Content supplied with the Business Information Warehouse.By integrating a variable with the processing type "Authorization", the reporting authorizations of the current user are checked when the query is executed. When the query is started, the variable is automatically filled with the values for which the user has authorization.

Variables for Characteristic Values

Variables for characteristics are parameters that are set in the query definition. The variables are only processed and filled with values when the query is inserted into a workbook. They act as benchmarks for characteristic values and can be processed by the processing types "manual entry / default value", "customer exit" and "SAP exit".

Variables for texts can be used in conjunction with variables for characteristic values. If you enter a variable as a characteristic value, you do not need to determine the text for the characteristic value straight away, but can let it be filled in a way that matches the selected characteristic, when the query is executed for the variable. Then define a text variable with automatic replacement.Use in query definitions: Select the InfoCube characteristic for which you want to apply a variable. Expand the list of characteristics and drag the variable for characteristic value into the list in the query definition.

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