Information systems used to be defined primarily by their functions: data and functions were stored separately and linked using input-output relationships.

Object orientation focuses on objects that represent either abstract or concrete things in the real world. They are first viewed in terms of their characteristics, which are mapped using the object’s internal structure and attributes (data). The behavior of an object is described through methods and events (functionality).

Objects form capsules containing the data itself and the behavior of that data. Objects should enable you to draft a software solution that is a one-to-one mapping of the real-life problem area.

Consistency throughout the software development process
The “language” used in the various phases of software development (analysis, specification, design and implementation) is uniform. The ideal would be for changes made during the implementation phase to flow back into the design automatically.

Encapsulation means that the implementation of an object is hidden from other components in the system, so that they cannot make assumptions about the internal status of the object and therefore dependencies on specific implementations do not arise.

Polymorphism (ability to have multiple forms) in the context of object technology signifies that objects in different classes have different reactions to the same message.

Inheritance defines the implementation relationship between classes, in which one class (the subclass) shares the structure and the behavior defined in one or more other classes (superclasses).

Note: ABAP Objects only allows single inheritance.

Before ABAP, SAP used to use a macro assembler.

ABAP was created with the intention of improving reporting. ABAP is a relatively independent in-house programming language, although it was influenced by other programming languages, for example, COBOL and PASCAL.

ABAP Objects is a true extension of ABAP. ABAP Objects unites the most promising aspects of other object-oriented programming languages, such as Java, C++ and Smalltalk.

You need to assign types more frequently in ABAP Objects than in ABAP. For example, in ABAP Objects, when you are defining interface parameters for methods, you must assign types to the parameters. The correct pass by value is then checked by the system when the method is called.
By comparison, in ABAP you do not need to assign types to the parameters of function modules, for example.

ABAP Objects is not a new language, but has been developed as an extension of ABAP. It integrates seamlessly into ABAP syntax and the ABAP programming model. All enhancements are strictly upward compatible.

In object-oriented programming, the analysis and design phase is even more important than it is for procedural programming. The reason for this is that in object-oriented programming, decisions taken during the analysis and design phase have even more pronounced effects on implementation than they do in procedural programming.

UML (Unified Modeling Language) is a standardized modeling language. It is used for the specification, construction, visualization and documentation of models for software systems and enables uniform communication between various users.

UML does not describe the steps in the object-oriented development process.

UML is an industry standard and has been standardized by the OMG (Object Management Group) since September 1997 as UML Version 1.1. The members of the OMG are continuously developing it further.

SAP uses UML as the company-wide standard for object-oriented modeling.

UML describes a number of different diagram types in order to represent different views of a system.

Use-case diagrams show the relationships between agents and actions (use cases), that is, they represent external system behavior from the user’s point of view.

Class diagrams show the static view of a model.
Interaction diagrams demonstrate the relationships and method calls between objects.
Sequence diagrams emphasize the timing sequence of the method calls, while collaboration diagrams focus more on the object relationships and their topology.

Status diagrams show a sequence of statuses that an object can adopt during its lifetime, and the stimuli that cause this status to change.

Activity diagrams are a special type of status diagrams. They mostly or exclusively contain activities.

Component diagrams show the organization and dependencies of components.

Distribution diagrams represent the dependencies of software and hardware.



CRM Middle ware Data Load and Monitoring


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