IACs are ready-to-use functions-for example, the SAP On-line Retailer-based on the ITS.SAP has outlined a variety of transactions in R/3 with an easier person interface and the corresponding HTML templates within the ITS. For instance, there are IACs for purchase requisition and buy release so that occasional customers can execute the purchasing transactions from their Net browser. That is included now in an necessary intranet IAC known as ESS where the employee may access personal information like holidays, salaries, tackle modification, event and training registration, and so on.
There are more than 90 IACs within the 4.6 release; they're used for intranets but are mainly for Web use by an organization’s vendors, prospects, applicants, and so on. The IACs are a fast solution to join your system to the Internet. You just have to customize the IAC if crucial and modify the templates provided by SAP with your feel and look requirements. If you wish to connect your SAP system to the Internet or an intranet, first have a look on the available IACs, because you may save money and time by using them.
If there are not any IACs for a buyer situation or the client needs to develop her personal application, SAP offers the SAP@Internet Studio in order to generate the HTML templates routinely from a buyer R/three transaction. Alternatively, with the SAPGUI for HTML, you can give access to almost any mySAP transaction from a browser.Why do you've to use IACs then? As a end result of for external users or occasional customers, you do not want to use the same SAP performance and look as to your professional SAP users. The SAPGUI for HTML is a very quick option to expose your whole R/3 system to the Web however with the SAPGUI look, and this is not the case in many of the Web scenarios you want to define. You'll in all probability desire extra flexibility to customize templates for occasional and external users.
Working ITSOperating an ITS means installation of the ITS software program first, however it also means administration and tuning of a running system.
The set up course of relies on the working system (Windows NT or Linux) and is described in the installation guide. Here we're going to clarify the internals of this process.Initially, the Setup program is executed. This program calls the ITSinstall program. ITSinstall installs the software on the host. It then calls ITSVinstall. With ITSVinstall, you create completely different subdirectories (templates, services, MIMEs, and so forth) for each A-Gate put in on the identical machine. In this manner, you could, for example, install the A-Gate for improvement and high quality assurance techniques on the identical machine.Setup is an intelligent program that can be executed more than once. If it discovers that the software has already been installed, it solely calls ITSVinstall in order to put in another virtual ITS with the identical software.
Then the Setup program calls ITSprotect, which asks you which permissions you wish to assign to the directories and shares generated by the ITS. As already mentioned, the advice is to assign them to the developers group in your Windows NT area in order to use the SAP@Net Studio later. ITSprotect may very nicely be referred to as as a standalone later if you need to change the permissions or use native instruments to do the same. Different applications are ITSuninstall and ITSVuninstall ITS software program and virtual ITS.
Each digital ITS is assigned a name utilized in directory technology later and in TCP/IP companies naming convention. In a Home windows NT atmosphere, ITS installs the A-Gate as a Windows NT service with the title “ITS Supervisor - XXX” where XXX is the ITS name.
After the installation, two community shares are created: one for the graphics, the MIME share, and another one for the service and template files. In the ITS installation, you additionally assign permissions to these shares. The ITS installation asks you if the permissions ought to be created for directors solely, a Home windows NT group, or everybody. The conventional means is to assign the shares to a Home windows NT group that your builders are also assigned to.
Administration of the ITS may be accomplished in several locations. It's a must to configure the W-Gate or the A-Gate, which might be done either within the configuration recordsdata, the registry, the service files, or with console commands. The following part describes the completely different prospects of configuring the ITS.
ITS Administration Device
From release 4.5, it is attainable to put in an extra digital ITS known as Administration ITS. This ITS has the service admin.srvc that lets you manage different ITS from the Web browser.With the Administration ITS, you can see performance indicators and start/stop ITS instances, view log files, or change configuration settings with a browser-based mostly Administration Tool. The Administration Tool affords you entry to almost any configuration parameter of the A-Gate. Most often, it is the most convenient way to make configuration changes with the Administration ITS.
ITS Remote Diagnostics isn't used very incessantly, but it's helpful if you want to have a look on the ITS log files from a distant location.
ITS Console Commands
Within the set up directory of the ITS yow will discover the folder Admin, the place some command-line tools for the administration of the ITS are stored.? ITSVcontrol is a command device that lets you start, stop, and change trace degree to the ITS. The same can be achieved by starting or stopping the Home windows NT service from the Management Panel.
- ITSprotect is used to vary the permissions on the directories and shares generated by the ITS.
- ITSVinstall and ITSVuninstall are used to put in or take away single ITS situations on the machine. On the whole, it is extra convenient to make use of the ITS Setup Device for set up and the Control Panel/Add/Remove Applications for uninstallation of ITS instances.
- ITSinstall and ITSuninstall are used to put in or remove the ITS bodily on the machine. On the whole, it is extra handy to make use of the ITS Setup Tool for set up and the Control Panel/Add/Take away Applications for uninstallation of ITS instances.
Configuration on Windows NT/2000 OS Degree
In Home windows NT/2000, an ITS occasion seems as an entry within the Management Panel/Services dialog box. You can use this dialog field to start or cease single ITS instances. Starting and stopping of cases has no impact on different situations running on the same machine.This dialog box can be used for disabling single instances or to switch the behavior of the service at startup, for instance, if you want to change the service to be began manually.
ITS releases prior to release 4.6D stored configuration data for the W-Gate component within the Home windows registry; since launch 4.6D, the configuration of the W-Gate is made with the XML-file wgate.conf. The file is stored in the same directory where the wgate.dll is saved: usually .../SAP/ITS/2.0/SAP-WGate-Scripts/.
You have to use the wgate.conf file to configure safety settings and connection parameters to the A-Gate. Additionally, you probably can configure the W-Gate to join with different A-Gates, depending on the hostname that was used to join to the Net server; for example, workplace.company.com determines that the W-Gate ought to connect to the ITS occasion for the Workplace system, and hr1.company.com determines the same W-Gate to connect with the ITS instance of the HR system HR1.On Home windows platforms, the set up of the W-Gate robotically installs a plug-in for the Microsoft Administration Console (MMC) that can be utilized for the configuration.
ITS is very scalable. You'll have the ability to select completely different configurations and set up totally different machines for Net servers, A-Gates, and totally different utility servers and blend them. The next concerns needs to be observed:
- Every W-Gate factors to one or more A-Gates utilizing load balancing. But a number of W-Gates may level to the same A-Gate.
- An ITS occasion can use a couple of application server through the use of load balancing to hook up with the R/three server. One ITS can hook up with extra than one R/three system. A number of ITSs can connect with the same R/three system. A quantity of A-Gates will be put in on the identical server.
- Virtual ITS allows for installing totally different ITS environments utilizing one software set up and has been available since launch 2.0 of ITS.
The number of worker threads and session reminiscence created for an ITS occasion determine the reminiscence required for that instance. Each work process consumes about 1MB, and each session approximately 250KB. For example, should you count on 1,000 session users and 20 simultaneous hits, you need 20 * 1MB 1,000 * 250KB 270MB RAMfor the ITS .
In the course of the set up, you'll have the ability to choose totally different configurations, but you'll find a way to change the variety of processes and periods within the registry or with the graphical administration utility later.
You could as well set up several Web situations on the identical machine with totally different W-Gates, or in the newest releases, one W-Gate set up may even serve a number of A-Gates. All this gives you with a very excessive diploma of scalability, and you can choose just one machine to put in several ITSs or a pool of machines, relying on your needs.
Once you discuss Internet access, security is at all times an issue. ITS has to access R/3, so that you need a user and password in R/3; ITS can ask for the R/3 consumer or can use a generic R/three consumer for access. In this case, the IAC ought to ask for a socalled Web consumer (you outline Internet users with transaction SU05). Internet customers are pseudo-users in R/3 (like customer, vendor, financial institution, or applicant) that you simply outline for your external users with restricted authorization in that particular IAC.
ITS also supports standard safety measures like HTTPS (HTTP over Secure Socket Layer), firewall assist ( you can arrange a firewall between the Web Server and W-Gate, as nicely as from the W-Gate to the A-Gate), saprouter and likewise SNC (Secure Community Communication) with information encryption between ITS and the appliance servers. ITS also helps X.509 certifications for user authentication from SAP 4.5B on and Single Sign-On scenarios based on cookies or logon tickets for the Workplace.
Improvement with the ITS
Growing Internet pages to work together with SAP methods could be based on HTML or Business HTML, that are introduced within the following sections.
Introduction to HTML
HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) was created at CERN (Conseil Europeen pour le Recherche Nucleaire, or European Laboratory for Particle Physics) with the aim of sharing up-to-date information between analysis centers. On this manner, a Net server in Europe may host the paperwork in textual content files that could hyperlink to other documents saved in different Net server (in Australia, for example) in a clear technique to the user.
HTML is a tag language based on SGML . SGML is a normal for learn how to specify a document markup language or tag set. SGML is a proper description of how you can define languages based on tags. HTML is a very particular implementation with a closed number of tags designed to format and present graphical and text info and the hyperlink tags. HTML and the Net know-how has turn into so widespread that new standards have also arrived, like XML (Extensible Markup Language), to define paperwork based mostly on .The fact is, the latest HTML specification known as XHTML, and it is an HTML definition with the XML’s extra rigorous standards.
Step loops are extensively utilized in SAP display screen programming to level out a listing of records with the identical definition. SAP@Net Studio is prepared to map the display screen step loop to an HTML table if the transaction has normal paging implemented. This means that the transaction should have PF21 to go to the start of the step loop and at least PF23 to go one web page ahead in the step loop. In this case, the ITS is ready to ship these instructions to the SAP system till the display screen doesn’t change and it detects that the step loop is finished. This is a straightforward way to map step loops in ITS. It isn't as quick as desired as a consequence of the ITS has to send a number of requests to SAP to get the whole loop. For this and for other conditions, it is also potential to send an ABAP internal desk to the ITS in one step.
ABAP programmers are used to executing debugging within the SAP system from the menu in the development transactions or with the /h OK-CODE.When debugging, the programmer can see step by step the execution of the ABAP, in addition to displaying the values in the fields or replacing them. Typically the transaction works in R/three but the HTML template gives completely different information. You can begin debugging additionally from any HTML page in R/3. First of all, it is finest to allow the performance in the A-Gate:
Then you'll give you the option to execute the HTML scenario.Once you need to start debugging, just start a SAPGUI towards the ITS host, system number 00. A SAPGUI display screen will pop up with the R/3 display screen where your HTML browser is. Then you may enter /h within the OK-CODE and start debugging in R/3, take a look at the fields and inside tables, set breakpoints, and so on.
Subscreens are very useful in the Screen Painter in R/3. They allow the developer to separate an SAP display into completely different subscreens, every of them with its own processing logic.SAP subscreens are mapped to HTML frames with SAP@Web Studio.Nearly all the IACs in SAP are programmed with subscreen frames. The one restriction if you program with frames is that HTML allows you to change one body at one time, so the ABAP developer ought to change both just one subscreen at one time, or the whole screen.
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