When the ITS (Web Transaction Server) was launched in 1996, it was the necessary thing component in the preliminary SAP strategy and providing for the Internet. It was launched with release 3.1G of SAP R/3. The SAP ITS is an extremely vital component inside the mySAP initiative, so it is a part of a lot of the mySAP components which can be accessible by Net browser.
SAP had the vision in 1996 that access to ERP (Enterprise Useful resource Planner) functions by a Net browser could be a key level in the following years. The ITS was designed at the beginning to give you the chance to provide typical Web and intranet scenarios with R/3 through a Web browser. On this way, SAP designed transactions in R/3 with a simple consumer interface with the intention to be used on the Internet. These transactions, plus the HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) templates used .
ITS to merge the lead to a final HTML page, are referred to as the IACs. There are IACs for logistics, financials, and HR scenarios. At present, there are greater than ninety IACs. If a company needs to make use of one of these situations, the primary task is the customizing of the IAC HTML templates supplied by SAP with the firm’s emblem and marketing standards. The IACs OK are designed primarily to be used externally (on the Internet), but some of them are additionally for inner use in a company with a Web browser-like creation and release of purchase requisitions.
An instance of an IAC is the SAP-HR with ESS (Worker Self Service). ESS permits the workers of an organization to access their data within the HR module with a Internet browser. Latest releases also embrace some internal monetary, logistics, and workplace applications. In the HR space, the staff can access their payroll and private data info, journey expense and actions reports, job offers within the firm, and training and event info and registration.These scenarios enhance the efficiency in the firm, decrease the HR division’s effort, save time and papers, and give quicker services to the workers than within the past.
If there are no IACs for a buyer situation, or the shopper desires to develop his personal software, SAP supplies the SAP@Net Studio in an effort to generate the HTML templates automatically from a buyer R/three transaction. ITS was designed to have the power to name features in R/3. These functions needs to bedesigned to work with ITS as a result of they should return a desk with the HTML page .
In launch 4.6, a brand new kind of ITS improvement appears with stream files. Movement information are textual content recordsdata in the ITS where you may program BAPI or RFC calls to R/3 and then evaluate the consequence: for example, name another BAPI and at the finish merge the BAPI end result with an HTML template. The primary distinction is that with IACs, the programming logic is mainly within the R/3 transaction and you use the text recordsdata (templates) in ITS to merge the result, but with move recordsdata, the programming logic is in the ITS textual content files. The developer calls BAPIs in R/three however then evaluates the outcomes and decides to name one other BAPI or merge the result with the ultimate HTML template.
ITS and mySAP Workplace
With the R/3 launch 4.6, SAP additionally released the SAPGUI for HTML for the ITS. The SAPGUI for HTML, also called Webgui permits the user to entry SAP with a Web browser with the same look that the EnjoySAP SAPGUI has. The ITS was in a place to translate the SAPGUI protocol in DHMTL pages and R/three, and all of the mySAP components are available by means of a Net interface.
Moreover, the Workplace was developed as a model new SAP product included in the mySAP initiative that lets you create an enterprise portal based on person roles. In this portal, the consumer can entry all capabilities, SAP and non-SAP, internal and exterior (Web), via a Net browser, relying on the user’s private function in the organization. The Office service and portal generation are also included in the ITS.
Web Basic Ideas
Before going into details in regards to the ITS architecture, the following sections introduce briefly some fundamental Internet and communication ideas, which are fundamental to understanding how all the parts work together.
IP (Web Protocol) is the protocol that permits two applications in two hosts to talk with every other. IP assigns a so-known as IP tackle to each host. In the present release, IP v4 is a four-byte number that’s normally represented separated with dots in decimal base, like 18.104.22.168. TCP/IP (Transmission Management Protocol/Internet Protocol) is a protocol that ensures the supply of the IP packets to this system and tries to resend the packet if the vacation spot has not acknowledged the packet reception. Another protocol over IP is UDP (Person Datagram Protocol). As reverse to TCP, UDP does not guarantee the packet delivery, nevertheless it has less overhead because of this. UDP is used on the Web in, for instance, broadcasting eventualities like radio or video applications.
Essentially the most successful protocol used in applications is TCP/IP. There are TCP/IP implementations in almost every working system, including UNIX and Windows. A number of applications have been developed over TCP/IP in a consumer/server mode. For instance, Telnet allows the UNIX person access to execute functions within the UNIX server from a remote pc (with the Telnet protocol); FTP (File Switch Protocol) allows the consumer to switch information from computer systems (primarily based on FTP instructions sent by TCP/IP); and the popular Internet mail is based on mail clients and mail servers primarily based on POP3 (Publish Workplace Protocol) or SMTP (Easy Mail Switch Protocol) instructions sent by TCP/IP. Additionally, TCP/IP is the protocol the place the SAPGUI sends the SAPGUI instructions between the SAP entrance finish and the dispatcher at the utility server.
TCP/IP is predicated on the ideas of the IP tackle and the network mask. The concept behind a community mask is that all the hosts belonging to the identical bodily community have the same network mask. The community mask can be a 4-byte quantity like 255.255.255.0. As you in all probability know, 255 in binary is 111111111. The community masks is used to check the destination host handle with its personal host network mask. The bits with 1 within the community masks must be the identical in the destination tackle because the bits in the source address. On this case, the host is thought of to be in the identical community, and the packet is distributed via the Ethernet, Token Ring, or native community adapter that is used. If not, the packet is sent to a brand new host known as a router or a gateway.
The router has several community adapters to communicate with other networks, like ISDN cards, frame relay, or others. On the other facet of this ISDN line is another router that knows its personal networks, and there are protocols between the routers to trade routing and community data to guarantee that the routers to discover tips on how to reach a selected IP address. It's past the scope of this e book to analyze the protocols between the routes. Let’s just say that there are open protocols that every router ought to know to speak on the Web, some routers additionally speak proprietary protocols (which are more environment friendly within the routing data alternate), and that the routers resolve which protocol the other facet can use.
This is basically how the Internet works: lots of networks interconnected with routers and the IP packets traveling to achieve their destinations. A reputation resolution maps the hostname to the actual IP address used within the IP protocol. This can be solved in a small network in a text file referred to as “hosts” on each pc, however in bigger networks, there are servers referred to as DNS (Area Name Server) that resolve the hostname to the IP address. The DNSs are also structured hierarchically. There's a DNS for the .com domain that is conscious of the IP handle of the .sap.com DNS, and the .sap.com DNS knows the IP addresses of their hosts. When the DNS idea was launched, some high-level domains have been defined, like .com, .org, .edu, .mil (military), .es (for Spain), .uk (for United Kingdom), or .de (for Germany). When a new area needs to be outlined, the accountable DNS of the lower-degree domain assigns it the name and registers the brand new DNS address in its DNS. In this approach, we can discover, with DNS resolution, the real IP tackle of a hostname on the Internet.
HTTP and HTML
A few of the hottest services on the Web now are the Internet companies based mostly on the HTTP protocol. HTTP is the protocol used between a Net server and a Net browser. The Web server hosts textual content recordsdata called HTML pages, and the Web browser will get these pages from the Web server, reads the HTML code within the web page, and reveals it to the user. The Internet browser sends an HTTP GET command to the Internet server to learn a web page, the Internet server sends this page written in a language known as HTML, and the browser decides how you can present the page.
HTML was designed to assist hyperlinks. The concept was for a document to reference one other document saved in the identical Net server or in another Internet server on the Internet. On this method, you can navigate from one document to another, all the time looking for the up-to-date doc that's maintained by its owner. Firstly, HTML was used to show static information, like paperwork with text and graphic information. The primary method to call a program and, in this approach, to generate dynamic content material was referred to as CGI (Widespread Gateway Interface).
CGI is the protocol (mainly used in UNIX Web servers) that specifies the finest method to design varieties in HTML and tips on how to move the fields in the type to a program in the Internet server. Within the first implementations, the Web server passed the fields like setting variables, which the referred to as program might get and use to generate the subsequent HTML page as commonplace output. Then the Net server sent this generated HTML page as the consequence to the Internet browser.
Other programming potentialities appeared later, like ASP (Active Server Pages), where the Internet server might have some particular tags in the HTML code that it used to name the code on the Net server site. DHTML (dynamic HTML) additionally allows you to embody particular tags, executed in this case on the browser website to offer particular animation and integration options on the client side.
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