SAP Controlling deals with direct Postings from finance department.n Direct posting lets you post direct costs, revenue, and sales deductions to profitability segments.Examples of this include licensing fees for purchased merchandise, special direct costs from sales such as transportation insurance for a certain shipment, cost and revenues for services, or invoices received for a marketing campaign.
You assign the values to a profitability segment directly in the FI posting transaction. There you can call up a special assignment dialog box for each posting line by clicking the Prof. segment field. n In this dialog box the system displays the characteristics that you can choose from the operating concern you are working in. You can predefine what is displayed on this screen by defining a “characteristic group” for the activity RFBU in Customizing. The characteristic group defines which characteristics are displayed for selection. For direct postings in FI, all assignments of values and quantities to the value fields in costing-based CO-PA are defined in PA transfer structure FI, which you maintain in Customizing.
In account-based CO-PA, the data is posted in the same cost or revenue element.If your system allows dual postings to both a profitability segment and a cost center, the real posting always goes to the profitability segment. The cost center is posted only for statistical purposes.
Entry Aid for Manual Account Assignment
The entry aid is a tool which can be used for any direct posting from Financial Accounting. It suggests to the person making the entry which characteristic values should be populated in CO-PA. Instead of having to type the information every time a posting is made, the system will then default the characteristic values.Central Entry aids can be provided for all users, in addition every user can enter “his” entry aids.
Automatic Account Assignment
Automatic postings such as those generated in Materials Management can be passed on to Profitability Analysis using the automatic PA assignment functions. The documents are updated in CO-PA for the profitability segment found on the basis of characteristic information in the corresponding FI document.This function should only be used in special cases for specific accounts and for representing rare business transactions. Typical transactions for which it might make sense to define an automatic PA assignment include
- Transferring price differences that are posted in the Purchasing application component due to price changes in an invoice.
- Transferring income or expenses that arise through the revaluation of material inventories
- Transferring inventory differences
The cost or revenue elements that receive the automatic postings are assigned to the value fields in costing-based CO-PA in PA transfer structure FI, which you maintain in Customizing.
In Profitability Analysis, sales revenues, sales deductions, and costs of goods manufactured are generally stored at the customer/product level. However, many business transactions - such as freight invoices, insurance expenses, or advertising - cannot easily be assigned to such a detailed level in CO-PA. Consequently, these need to be posted at a summarized level, such as the division, sales organization, or company code level.
Top-down distribution of actual data is a periodic function that lets you distribute this aggregated data to more detailed levels (such as the division level or customer level) in CO-PA on the basis of reference information (such as the data from the previous year). This function works the same way as
top-down distribution of plan data.
You can select values posted to any profitability segments and in any value fields, and then distribute this data to a specified distribution level. You can use existing actual or plan data as the basis for this distribution. You can also distribute period by period, or aggregate the period values to smooth out variances.At this time, actual top-down distribution is only possible in costing-based CO-PA. In contrast to Top-Down-Distribution in planning the only method available is “Not assigned”.
Analyzing Customizing Settings Using the Customizing Monitor
- The Customizing Monitor enables you to analyze the following for value fields:
- The assignment of condition types from the billing document transfer
- The assignment of cost elements for settlement of production orders based on the PA transfer structure
The assignment of cost elements for assessment cycles and cost centers
Furthermore, you can examine at a glance the derivation rules and valuation strategies that have been
defined in Customizing.
Reconciliation Report FI / SD and CO-PA
In SD, billing document values are assigned to condition types, posted to accounts in accounting and placed into value fields in CO-PA.Correspondingly, the reconciliation report CO-PA represents a list of the balances for value fields, condition types and P&L accounts. This list offers you the following fundamental functions.Using posted data, you can check and understand (post-analysis) the assignments in Customizing of SD conditions to accounts in FI and to value fields in CO-PA, as well as the flows of values resulting from those assignments.You can analyze the differences between CO-PA and SD as well as between CO-PA and FI with a view to locating their origin. This is particularly useful for reconciling FI and CO-PA. This report is also available to check the value flow from order/project settlement. n In the above shown example the Delta SD/CO-PA is caused by the fact that accrued freight is calculated in CO-PA via valuation and has accordingly no SD counterpart.
Profitability Analysis can receive actual data from the following R/3 applications:
- SD (customer agreements, sales orders, goods issues, billing documents)
- CO-OM (assessment of cost center and process costs, activity and process allocation, order settlement)
- CO-PC (valuation using material cost estimates, settlement of cost objects, production variances)
- PS (project settlement)
- FI (general ledger postings)
- PM (settlement of maintenance orders)
- SM (settlement of orders)