MySAP has a evolved version of first generation technology and it has taken this ERP to a new level where it is highly customizable.We have been discussing about this in the previous posts and the recent post is about MySAP technology overview.Here we are further going to continue this discussion in a elaborate manner.
ITS (Internet Transaction Server)
SAP soon joined its purposes with the Web world in release 3.1 (1996) by means of the ITS. ITS allows access to SAP R/3 eventualities from a Internet browser and call perform modules by means of a URL. It also allows for HTML access with the SAPGUI with the EnjoySAP interface to almost all normal SAP transactions from a browser. ITS can be the portal service for the Workplace portal. ITS is among the key pieces within the SAP Internet technique and it's current in virtually every mySAP system landscape.
Web Business Framework
One of the success factors for SAP was the seamless integration between applications. In SAP you probably can see the whole enterprise course of, no matter whether or not it has interaction with Funds (FI), Controlling (CO), Asset Administration (AM), Gross sales and Distribution (SD), or Human Useful resource (HR) modules. The next step we noticed was the ALE that enables integration between functions in distributed systems. The Web will improve the integration between processes not only inside one company, but also between companies because the widespread media to alternate data and information. SAP evolution is the mixing between systems by approach of the Internet, which is mainly what mySAP is for. SAP supports all of the Web standards, as you will note, and participates actively in all Web initiatives. mySAP permits Web process integration with new situations that may revolutionize the way of doing enterprise today.
As has been talked about, the Internet Enterprise Framework is the technological basis of mySAP.com, based mostly on the previous SAP Enterprise Framework structure and including Net know-how and standards. The next sections introduce some of these Net technologies, the protocols used, and the business standards. For instance:
1. HTML and HTTP. HTTP is the protocol used between a Web browser and a Net server to change documents. These paperwork are known as HTML pages.
2. LDAP. LDAP (Mild Directory Entry Protocol) is an open protocol to define listing services and how you can access them. These directories can be person directories or file directories. These companies are already included in operating systems like Windows 2000. SAP supports LDAP integration with the LDAP Connector so as to outline the R/3 customers or the HR staff centrally with LDAP support.
The HTML language was so profitable for exchanging information between customers (browsers) and machines (Net servers) that a related method was created for exchanging data between machines or systems. XML is a tag (meta) language, just like HTML, used to describe paperwork in a predefined method, understandable for machines. XML and HTML are primarily based on SGML (Commonplace Generalized Markup Language), a proper definition on methods to describe languages based mostly on tags.
XML defines how one can outline document standards based on tags, nevertheless it does not define the paperwork themselves. The door is open in order for third parties to define their own substandards for particular industries. XML isn't solely used for ERP (Enterprise Resource Planner) methods; there are XML specifications for patients at hospitals, for exchanging info between libraries, and so on. Every XML document ought to have a DTD (Information Kind Definition) at the start of the document. The DTD specifies which tags are allowed in the doc data part and which parameters or values are allowed in the tags. The DTD could be within the despatched doc, may very properly be just a URL to a Web site the place the DTD is saved, or in apply could be an agreement between each events and is not sent.
DTD definition is based on the SGML definition and is not primarily based on tags however on a proper language. With a view to facilitate this, a brand new commonplace has arrived known as XML Schema. XML Schema is like the DTD in the definition of the allowed tags and parameters, nevertheless it looks like XML as well. SAP has participated in the XML world for the explanation that begining. The SAP Business Connector (see the later section “XML and the Business Connector”) permits SAP to ship and receive documents with XML and customary communication protocols like HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, or e-mail. SAP has outlined a SAP XML for paperwork based on the IDOC definition, and an XML BAPI with a view to outline how to name BAPIs with XML and get the lead to XML. SAP has participation in xml.org, RosettaNet XML definition initiative, BizTalk Microsoft initiative, and likewise helps EDI ports of type XML in launch 4.6.
mySAP.com can additionally be characterized as an open system e-enterprise platform. Considered one of a very powerful interfaces to the exterior world is the COM (Frequent Object Model) interface, probably the most helpful interface within the Microsoft world. COM is the object-oriented mannequin implementation from Microsoft. It’s extensively utilized in nearly all Home windows purposes nowadays. In the COM world, purposes expose their “objects” to different functions through the Windows registry. For instance, a GIS (Geographic Data System Application) can expose its maps as objects, and the external software can present a map setting the thing properties, like coordinates and scale and invoking the object methods, like SHOW or ZOOM, which can be executed in the code of the GIS application. In the COM world, the external functions must know these properties and strategies, but the true work is encapsulated in the utility that exports the object.
With this programming model, a VB (Visual Primary) programmer, ASP (Energetic Server Pages) pages in a Internet server (nearly any programming language in Windows setting now can use COM) can easily entry the objects exported from other purposes, invoke them, and entry their functions within the program. Nearly all Windows business packages export their functionality in the type of COM objects.
As you probably can suppose, mySAP.com additionally does it. SAP R/3 has its personal Business Object Repository from release 3.0. You presumably can entry it with transactions SWO1 and SWO2.
The SAP Business Objects are classified in purposes (like financial, logistics, and so on) and include the most typical objects used in the SAP system, like CUSTOMER, BANK, FI-DOCUMENT, and so on. These objects have methods like CREATE, UPDATE, or RELEASE. Some of these methods are set as “secure” from SAP and are called BAPIs. They seem with a green semaphore in the SAP object repository.
You can entry all of the BAPIs instantly with the transaction BAPI from release 4.0 on. Secure means that SAP ensures that the BAPI interface (import/export and table parameters) will not change in at the very least two large SAP releases. For instance, if SAP delivered a BAPI in launch 4.0B, its interface would be the identical in 4.5 and 4.6.With the BAPIs method, your funding in improvement is guaranteed for at the very least around two years, and your external program will work even if the release of your SAP system is upgraded within the meantime. SAP has created alternative ways to access these BAPIs from the external SAP world ( Java, ActiveX, C++ libraries) and one of the vital well-liked, in performance and scalability, is the DCOM (Distributed COM) connector interface.
DCOM connector is a SAP improvement with assist from Microsoft that enables the Home windows COM world to access any BAPI or RFC module in a SAP system. DCOM means you could also entry objects remotely defined in one other server. Since release 3.0, ABAP may entry COM objects from SAP. In this means, ABAP has carried out directions like CREATE OBJECT, SET/GET PROPERTY, and CALL METHOD and the programmer can access Home windows objects and invoke the methods with it. These instructions are executed through the SAPGUI, which implies that the ABAP sends an RFC to the SAPGUI and the SAPGUI executes the COM method. The largest downside with this method is that it wants a consumer interface to be executed; for instance, it won't work in a batch program.
From release 4.6D, the DCOM suite has a bidirectional interface. You presumably can entry COM objects from ABAP through a brand new component referred to as COM4ABAP (COM for ABAP) that means that you just can invoke COM objects without SAPGUI.
What Is COM/DCOM?
There are alternative ways to entry a BAPI from the external SAP world. Within the decrease stage you could possibly, for instance, use all the RFC obtainable platforms, like RFC API in DLL (Dynamic Link Library), C library in all of the SAP supported platforms including Home windows, different UNIX, and Linux, OS400, and OS/390, C++ library, or Java RFC. In this level, you may immediately call the perform module that implements the BAPI. But SAP also helps object-oriented programming and has implemented ActiveX controls, Java BAPI, and CORBA support so as to call BAPIs. You can use the ActiveX controls in VB or ASP or in any Windows object-oriented programming language. The ActiveX controls are also known as SAP Automation; it is an easy approach to begin programming BAPIs from VB, for example. SAP Automation is included in the Desktop Development Package choice from SAPGUI set up and can be accessible for obtain from saplabs.com.
If your most popular programming language is Java, you could have available a Java-BAPI (with the SAPGUI set up) and there are additionally CORBA implementations for BAPI programming, like Actional Management Broker (formerly VisualEdge). Within the Home windows world, it's greatest to select between ActiveX and DCOM connector programming. ActiveX is an easy starting point, however when you need hundreds of connections to SAP, DCOM connector allows you the MTS (Microsoft Transaction Server) that defines swimming pools of connections as an alternative of a connection for a single person just like the SAP Automation controls.
DCOM Connector Architecture
DCOM connector lets you access the SAP objects, like local objects, in your programming environment. All of the facilities in object-oriented programming languages-like the Intellisense editor in VB where you'll have the ability to see objects, select one and see the strategies, choose one and see the properties-are available with the DCOM connector. With the optionally available use of MTS, DCOM connector allows you to outline and use the dispatching and queue possibilities of MTS.
The first thing that must be clear for you is that DCOM connector is a development environment, from which you'll give you the option to resolve which SAP objects you want to use, and it creates C code and compiles it to your later growth use. In the case of MTS, DCOM connector also creates MTS classes for you.
Primary AdministrationYou can decide which R/3 programs you want to use with the DCOM connector. In the initial web page of the DCOM connector, click on DESTINATIONS. From this screen, you can see all of the R/three techniques you might have defined. After the installation, the screen should be empty. A destination is how you handle an R/three system. It's essential know the applying server or the message server (if you need to go browsing with load balancing), and you could supply a consumer, a client, and a password. This user is used only for the development process (accessing the article repository in R/three and creating the resulting DLLs). In case you enter a gaggle of customers you've gotten outlined in MTS (for MTS safety), enter the group here. All of the packages are assigned to this group in MTS (in order that solely Home windows customers of this group can access these packages). Of course you may go away it blank if you are not using MTS. Pooling of R/3 context means you may reuse the open connection to R/3 for several RFC calls instead of closing the connection to R/3 each time.
Now it can save you your destination. You usually need only one destination. When you access totally different R/three launch ranges, perhaps you need to arrange a different destination for every of them, as a result of in each release you will discover extra objects as the launch number increases. While you press logon, the DCOM CC (Part Connector) connects to R/3 and scans the Object Browser Repository (with RFC) to get a grouped view of all SAP objects. You may navigate in this display, search for objects, and select them. The objects you need to include in your projects must be added with the ADD button. Now after deciding on some objects, we can generate our DLLs. You'll be able to select a namespace prefix you like. It will be the prefix for internal title in DLLs and MTS. Then you must select a listing and a name to your C++ project. As we stated before,DCOM connector creates a C program for you and compiles it. This is the place you say where to store the supply files for the program. It's best to create a listing for it beforehand. You additionally select a reputation for the MTS bundle (should you use MTS) and you can select the session attribute. It is finest to know that in case you wish to establish all communication parameters or use transactional BAPI, you ought to set up the session flag.
Since release 4.6D, SAP has included a element referred to as COM4ABAP that allows ABAP programmers to entry the COM world without using the SAPGUI. With this performance, ABAP programmers can entry loads of COM objects available in server mode, like entry to external databases, hosts, SMS messaging methods, and no matter your creativeness suggests to you. Up to this launch, you could additionally carry out such integration, however with extra programming:
You could create an RFC server and combine the COM object in it.Then you might name functions of the RFC server from ABAP and with these functions map the decision to the COM world. Your program additionally should have the ability additionally to map the ABAP variables to the COM data types. COM4ABAP is applied as a Home windows NT service, the place you simply should say which R/three system ought to connect to and whether you need a default COM . So, no code from COM facet, simply customize.
You probably can then simply start the service from the Home windows NT Management Panel and verify the connection from R/3 with transaction SM59. Create a vacation spot of sort R (Registration) with the same title because the -a parameter in the service definition and click on on on Test. This server is applied as a multithreaded server, so you may access in parallel from one and even from more than one R/3 system in your installation.
To assist the server to map the ABAP variables to the COM variables, you can (and should) define a TypeMap library where the mapping between the variables is done. That is especially needed for Tables and ABAP structures. The mapping is saved in an XML file with a view to transform the ABAP variable in a COM variable. In order to create such an XML document, you have to use the out there program typemap.exe. This program exhibits you an inventory of available registered DLLs. From each variable two methods are proven: GET-property and SET-property. It's because the properties aren't instantly accessible from ABAP, only by approach of these methods. This system tries to define an ABAP kind for each of those variables. Within the case of buildings, it is finest to examine the type of each of the fields of the structure.
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