SAP Financail Document Control

The R/3 system makes use of the doc principle.Postings are at all times stored in document form. The doc remains as an entire unit within the system until it's archived.A document is identified by the combination of doc quantity, company code and fiscal year.The R/3 FI doc consists of a doc header (information which applies to your complete document) and 2 to 999 line objects (information which is particular to that line merchandise).The header and the road items will additionally be proven in detail. Two of an important control keys are the document kind for the header and the posting key for the road objects

The R/3 system records not less than one document for every business transaction. Every doc receives a novel document number.R/3 can assign the doc numbers (= internal task) or the consumer can assign the quantity at document entry time (= exterior task).A enterprise occasion would possibly trigger multiple document within R/3. When goods are acquired from a vendor, a material document is created to keep track of particulars important to stock tracking. An accounting doc is created to trace financially related info, comparable to G/L accounts and amounts.Many enterprise events happen throughout R/three for which a doc is created, however no accounting doc is produced as a outcome of there is no such thing as a financial impact. An example of this might be a buy order order.R/3 will link associated documents collectively within the system, to provide a whole picture of any business transaction throughout the system.

The doc kind controls the document header and is used to differentiate the business transactions to be posted, e.g. buyer bill, vendor payments, etc. Doc varieties are defined on the shopper stage and are due to this fact valid for all company codes. The usual system is delivered with document varieties which can be used, changed, or copied.Main controls of document varieties are the quantity range of doc numbers, and the account sorts allowed for posting.

Document type additional controls are the field status of the header fields “Textual content” and “Reference Quantity”, and if invoices are posted with the web method.Within the procedure really helpful by SAP for submitting unique paperwork , the document type controls document filing. All the time retailer the unique documents under the variety of the data processing document. If the unique doc has an exterior number enter the external variety of the unique document into the reference number field within the header of the info processing doc, and document the info processing doc number within the original document.

Doc kind AB permits postings to all account types.All different document varieties restrict the sorts of accounts you may publish to. Document type DG, for example, lets you publish to customer (D) and G/L accounts (S) only.To transfer billing documents from the R/three billing system, the usual system makes use of the document sorts like RV, the default document type for SD billing paperwork (customer invoices) and RE, the default doc kind for MM billing paperwork (vendor invoices). When inside quantity assignment is used, the system assigns a brand new number to every doc in the Monetary Accounting component. In external quantity task, the system transfers the billing doc number to the FI doc as lengthy as this number has not already been assigned.The fee program uses the doc kind ZP for its automatic postings.

The document number vary defines the allowable vary through which a document quantity have to be positioned and can't overlap.

  1. Internal numbering: The system shops the final used doc quantity from the quantity range in the sphere “present quantity” and takes the subsequent number for the next document (examples 00 and 01 above)
  2. External numbering: The consumer enters the original doc number, or the number is transferred automatically from a pre-invoicing system. The numbers normally are not utilized in sequence and subsequently the system can not store a “present quantity” (example 02). The numbers may be alphanumeric.
  3. The document quantity vary has to be outlined for the yr in which it's used. Doc number ranges will be defined:till a fiscal yr sooner or later: At the beginning of each fiscal year the system continues to take the subsequent number after the “present number”. It does not restart on the lower limit.
  4. per fiscal yr: At the start of each fiscal year the document numbering begins once more on the decrease limit. This helps to keep away from reaching the higher limit of a range.
One quantity vary might be assigned to a number of document types.Like doc sorts, posting keys are defined at the client level.In addition to the above talked about management functions, the posting key indicates:
  1. whether the road merchandise deals with a cost transaction or not. This information is required in analyzing fee history and creating fee notices.
  2. whether or not the sales figures of the account should be up to date by the transaction, e.g. when posting a buyer invoice.
Posting keys have been enhanced with the model new Enjoy SAP functionality. In the usual transactions, posting keys are labeled “debit” and “credit”. In Customizing, R/3 delivers the following default values:
  1. For GL Transactions: “debit” is posting key forty, “credit score” is posting key 50.
  2. For Customer Invoices: “debit” is posting key 01, “credit” is posting key 50.
  3. For Vendor Invoices: “credit” is posting key 31, “debit” is posting key 40.
During document entry, completely different fields are displayed depending on the transaction and the accounts used. For example, when posting bills, a price center and tax info is normally required. However, when posting cash, this identical info isn't necessary. These completely different displays throughout doc processing are managed by subject status.As a common rule, you customize the account-dependent subject status on normal ledger accounts. For buyer and vendor processing, you customise the field status on the posting key as necessary. Just as within the field standing definition in G/L accounts, the sphere standing with the upper precedence applies.Exceptions of the rule above:
  1. If enterprise areas shall be used, the field “business area” must be ready for input. It's switched on by enabling enterprise space stability sheets for the corporate code. With the sphere standing, you can solely resolve if it shall be a required or an optional entry field.
  2. Tax fields are only ready for entry if the G/L account is set up as tax-relevant.
The sector standing definitions ”suppress” and ”required entry” cannot be combined. This combination causes an error.For every category of common ledger account, e.g., money accounts, expense accounts, it's essential to determine the standing of every document entry field. Will text be required, suppressed or non-obligatory for document entry when using these GL accounts? Will price center be required, suppressed or non-compulsory for doc entry when utilizing these GL accounts? Etc. etc.These “rules” are grouped into subject status teams for each class of basic ledger accounts. Discipline status teams are assigned on the respective general ledger master records. The field status groups are collected below one area status variant.The sector status variant is assigned to your company code(s). No posting can be made till this is complete. Usually, the same area status variant is assigned to your whole firm codes so that the similar “guidelines” apply throughout company codes..

R/3 delivers a typical set of subject status groups. It is recommended to repeat the usual delivered field status groups and modify as necessary.If a doc is posted to a sub ledger account, the field standing group of the reconciliation account will apply.SAP recommends that you just use these standard delivered posting keys . For those who change them or outline new posting keys, all tables containing a reference to these keys should even be maintained.Posting keys for property and materials might only be used if the corresponding SAP elements are implemented.By influencing the field status definitions of posting keys and the field standing group, the sector status will be made transaction-dependent and account-dependent.Because the sub ledger accounts do not need a subject status group, differentiation in the sub ledger postings is especially made by totally different posting keys. Due to this fact, there are a entire lot of posting keys for sub ledger postings.

Typically ledger postings differentiation is mainly made by totally different field status groups. Subsequently, only two posting keys (forty and 50) are wanted for general ledger postings. Posting durations are outlined within the fiscal year variant.To stop paperwork from being posted to a wrong posting interval, desired durations might be closed.Normally the current posting period is open and all different intervals are closed. On the end of a interval it is usually closed and the following period is opened. A period is opened by coming into a range into the posting interval variant which encompasses this period. It is possible to have as many periods open as desired.Through the process of financial closing, some special intervals can also be open for closing postings.

In the course of the time of the closing process, two period ranges must be open on the same time. Therefore, two interval ranges will be entered in the posting period table.Several firm codes can use the identical posting interval variant. The closing and opening of durations is then completed at the same time for all assigned company codes, thus making period upkeep easier. On the doc header level, R/3 checks the periods which can be allotted to the account type “+”. This is the first check. Subsequently the account type “+” should be open for all durations which are supposed to be open for some other account type. The account kind “+” is the minimal entry in the posting interval variant.Posting periods might be dealt with in another way for various account types, i.e. for a sure interval, postings on buyer accounts may be attainable whereas postings on vendor accounts may not.At the line item degree, R/3 checks the account type of the posting key to confirm that the period is open for the assigned account type.

The account vary at all times accommodates G/L accounts. By entering sure reconciliation accounts behind sub ledger account types, these sub ledger accounts may be treated differently than accounts which have a special reconciliation account.Throughout the time of the closing procedure two interval ranges have to be open at the same time. Subsequently, two interval ranges may be entered within the posting interval table.An authorization group could additionally be assigned to the first range. Then, only customers belonging to this authorization group have the permission to put up into the first period range. It is smart to use the first range for the particular periods and authorize only the accountants involved in closing to submit into the special periods.The consumer will need to have the authorization for the authorization object F_BKPF_BUP (accounting doc: authorization for posting periods) with the identical worth in the area “authorization group” as within the posting period table.

Basic Financial Posting

The design of the R/3 posting transaction for G/L, A/P and A/R document entry has been changed to enable the consumer to make postings quicker and simpler, with as little coaching as possible. The new entry transactions display the most important enter fields on one screen. There is little distinction between the G/L posting screen and the A/P and A/R bill screens.You enter the overall information for the posting document on the doc header part of the screen: doc and posting date, text, etc. The document sort defaults in for the transaction that's being processing:
  1. SA: G/L Posting
  2. KR: Vendor Invoice - KG: Vendor Credit score Memo
  3. DR: Buyer Invoice - DG: Buyer Credit Memo
The vital input fields are in the foreground on a tab and the fields used less incessantly are on the
different tabs behind the first tab.With A/P and A/R invoices, the business partner account knowledge is entered in this section together with the bill or credit memo amount. When selecting enter, the business partner master data can be displayed such as the account title, tackle and bank details.Extra information about the enterprise associate, such as open line objects, could be displayed by selecting the open gadgets icon.

Additional Line Items

Enter the road objects in the clearly laid-out table on the underside part of the screen. The sector names are clearly labeled and extra info such because the account title is also displayed when the entries are made.Choose totally different field or columns and alter the scale and sequence of the columns and fields. Line objects can be copied.At the high of the screen, Park, Submit or Maintain, might be chosen to finish the document entry transaction once the steadiness is zero.The “old” G/L entry transaction continues to be accessible by transaction code F-02 or underneath menu path Common Ledger, Document Entry, Different, Basic Posting.For more complex transactions, department to the existing complicated posting transaction from the menu, but you can't return to this initial screen afterwards.
Users can navigate from a tree structure on the left hand side of the screen. The tree provides a range of reference paperwork that users can choose from. The reference documents can be configured to embody both a special selection of fields and area values.

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